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Torpedo panthera

(Panther electric ray)


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Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Arabic:

Khadala ramlya

Common Names in Czech:

Elektrick, Elektrický rejnok hřebenatý, Parejnok Panterov, Parejnok panterový

Common Names in Dutch:


Common Names in English:

Leopard torpedo, Panther electric ray

Common Names in French:

Torpille Panth, Torpille panthère

Common Names in German:

Bogenstirn Torpedorochen, Bogenstirn Zitterrochen

Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:

魔电鳐, 魔電鰩

Common Names in Vietnamese:

Leopard torpedo


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Found on mud or sandy bottoms , from shallow water to a depth of 100 m [1].

Typically found in water with a depth of 0 to -2,606 meters (0 to -8,550 feet).[2]

Biome: Marine .

Ecology: Recorded on muddy and sandy bottoms of the continental shelf to depths of ~110 m. Very little known of the habitat and biology of this species. Reaches ~110 cm TL . Male T. panthera reaches sexual maturity before 28.1 cm TL when its claspers become completely calcified. No information is known from female T. panthera (Carvalho et al. 2002).

Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length): Unknown (female); at least before 28.1 cm TL (male).
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): ~110 cm TL.
Size at birth (cm): Unknown.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size : Unknown.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown. (Ref. 311254).

List of Habitats:


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Torpedo (Torpedo) panthera Olfers 1831 • Torpedo panthera von Olfers 1831


Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 18-Oct-2000

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Torpedo

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 23 species and subspecies in this genus:

T. adenensis (Aden Gulf Torpedo) · T. alexandrinsis (Alexandrine Torpedo) · T. andersoni (Florida Torpedo) · T. bauchotae (Rosette Torpedo) · T. californica (Pacific Electric Ray) · T. fairchildi (New Zealand Electric Ray) · T. formosa (Taiwan Torpedo Ray) · T. fuscomaculata (Blackspotted Electric Ray) · T. mackayana (West African Torpedo Ray) · T. macneilli (Short-Tail Torpedo Ray) · T. marmorata (Common Crampfish) · T. microdiscus (Smalldisk Torpedo) · T. nobiliana (Great Torpedo Ray) · T. panthera (Panther Electric Ray) · T. peruana (Peruvian Torpedo) · T. puelcha (Argentine Torpedo) · T. semipelagica (Semipelagic Torpedo) · T. sinuspersici (Variable Torpedo Ray) · T. suessii (Orange-Spotted Toadfish) · T. tokionis (Trapezoid Torpedo) · T. torpedo (Ocellated Tonguefish) · T. tremens (Torpedo Electric Ray) · T. tremens peruana (Peruvian Torpedo)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 29, 2008:



  1. Sommer, C., W. Schneider and J.-M. Poutiers (1996). FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of Somalia. FAO, Rome. 376 p. [back]
  2. Mean = -565.670 meters (-1,855.873 feet), Standard Deviation = 1,125.510 based on 6 observations. Ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
  3. Dulvy, N.K. and J.D. Reynolds (1997). Evolutionary transitions among egg-laying, live-bearing and maternal inputs in sharks and rays. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 264:1309-1315. [back]
Last Revised: 2015-02-06