- Largest chipmunk in North America. Note indistinct face stripes and reddish rump area.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Chipmunk, eastern chipmunk
Common Names in French:
Tamia Ray, tamia rayÃ©, tamia rayé
Species Tamias striatus
This is a small, ground-dwelling squirrel whose sharp chattering chuck-chuck-chuck is often heard before the animal is seen. Ears are short, rounded , and held erect . The short, bushy tail is held straight up when the animal runs.
The fur on the back is reddish brown, with 5 conspicuous black stripes that run down the back and sides and end at a reddish rump . The belly and sides are buff to white, and the tail is blackish above and rusty below. Stripes on the face distinguish this species from all other mammals over most of its range .
The preferred habitat for this species is deciduous forests , forest edges , and wooded rocky ravines . The Eastern Chipmunk is basically a ground dweller, but will readily climb trees . It digs a burrow system which is a complex of tunnels with two or three burrow entrances hidden under a rock, log , or bank. The main nest chamber is about 25.4 cm (10 in) in diameter and is lined with dried leaves. The nest may be as much as 0.9 m (3 ft ) below the soil surface and 1.8 - 3.7 m (6 - 12 ft) away from the burrow entrance. Other chambers are dug for food storage and for disposal of excess soil from tunnel building. The Eastern Chipmunk is diurnal , except during long periods of freezing or extreme winter weather, when it becomes inactive and remains in the nest.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,140 meters (0 to 7,021 feet).
It prefers deciduous woodlands with ample cover
, such as brush
, rocky forested slopes
. Also found in brushlands
and hedgerows. Commonly climbs trees
. Burrows often open
or rock, near base
of tree, or under the edge of a building.
is generally constructed below ground
in an extensive burrow
Breeding period is from mid-March to early April. A second breeding period occurs from mid-July to mid-August involving young of the previous year. Gestation lasts 31 days. Litter size is 4-15 (3-5 most often). One to two litters per year. Commonly lives 2-3 years, sometimes 5-6 years.
Home range is less than one hectare , typically 0.08-0.60 ha, largest in early summer and early fall ; core area of home range is defended against conspecific neighbours; largest home ranges are those of breeding males; low water availability may result in increased home range size. Individuals may make long movements outside their usual range ; non dispersing individuals have lifetime home range lengths of up to at least 0.5 km , and dispersal movements may extend to at least 0.9 km (Roberts 1976).
This species utilizes a wide variety of seeds, fruits, and nuts, some mushrooms and insects. Active during the day. In winter, becomes torpid, with frequent arousals..
List of Habitats :
- 1 Forest
- 1.1 Forest - Boreal
- 1.4 Forest - Temperate
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.4 Shrubland - Temperate
- 14 Artificial/Terrestrial
- 14.4 Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens
- 14.5 Artificial/Terrestrial - Urban Areas [more info]
Eats acorns , hickory nuts, pecans, berries , seeds, and insects such as grasshoppers, beetles, katydids, and cicadas. As it forages , it crams food into pouches in its cheeks. Once these pouches are full, the Chipmunk returns to its burrow and stores the food in underground chambers to eat during the winter months when food may be scarce. It may also bury food in shallow excavations on the forest floor. This habit of burying seeds and nuts helps in the dispersal of many forest trees.
A mature Eastern Chipmunk can breed twice a year, beginning in March, with the first litter of 2-7 (usually 4-5) young being born in April after a 31-day gestation period . A second litter is born in July or August. Young open their eyes at 30 days and are weaned at 2 months of age. At this time they become independent of the female.
The Eastern Chipmunk is eaten by predators such as foxes, hawks, and snakes .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- (Szalay & McKenna, 1971) McKenna, 1975
- (Weber, 1904) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Bowdich, 1821
- Brandt, 1855
- Infraorder: Sciurida () - (Carus, 1868) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Suborder: Sciuromorpha () - Brandt, 1855
- Order: Rodentia () - Bowdich, 1821 - Rodents
- Mirorder: Simplicidentata () - (Weber, 1904) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Grandorder: Anagalida () - (Szalay & McKenna, 1971) McKenna, 1975
- Superorder: Preptotheria () - (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- Magnorder: Epitheria () - (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- Cohort: Placentalia () - (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Supercohort: Theria () - (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Infralegion: Tribosphenida () - (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Sublegion: Zatheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Legion: Cladotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Superlegion: Trechnotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Infraclass: Holotheria () - (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Subclass: Theriiformes () - (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Class: Mammalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 08-Jun-2004
Members of the genus Tamias
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 47 species and subspecies in this genus:
T. alpinus (Alpine Chipmunk) · T. amoenus (Yellow-Pine Chipmunk) · T. amoenus celeris (Yellow-Pine Chipmunk) · T. bulleri (Buller's Chipmunk) · T. canipes (Gray-Footed Chipmunk) · T. canipes canipes (Gray-Footed Chipmunk) · T. cinereicollis (Gray-Collared Chipmunk) · T. dorsalis (Cliff Chipmunk) · T. dorsalis utahensis (Cliff Chipmunk) · T. durangae (Durango Chipmunk) · T. durangae durangae (Durango Chipmunk) · T. merriami (California Chipmunk) · T. minimus (New Mexico Least Chipmunk) · T. minimus arizonensis (White Mountains Chipmunk) · T. minimus atristriatus (New Mexico Least Chipmunk) · T. minimus chuskaensis (Chuska Mountain Chipmunk) · T. minimus minimus (Least Chipmunk) · T. minimus oreocetes (Flathead Least Chipmunk) · T. minimus selkirki (Selkirk Least Chipmunk) · T. obscurus (Baja California Chipmunk) · T. obscurus obscurus (California Chipmunk) · T. ochrogenys (Yellow-Cheeked Chipmunk) · T. palmeri (Palmer's Chipmunk) · T. panamintinus (Panamint Chipmunk) · T. panamintinus acrus (Kingston Mountain Chipmunk) · T. panamintinus panamintinus (Panamint Chipmunk) · T. quadrimaculatus (Long-Eared Chipmunk) · T. quadrivittatus (Organ Mountains Chipmunk) · T. quadrivittatus australis (Organ Mountains Chipmunk) · T. quadrivittatus oscuraensis (Oscura Mountains Chipmunk) · T. ruficaudus (Red-Tailed Chipmunk) · T. ruficaudus ruficaudus (Rocky Mountain Red-Tailed Chipmunk) · T. ruficaudus simulans (Columbia Red-Tailed Chipmunk) · T. rufus (Hopi Chipmunk) · T. senex (California Chipmunk) · T. sibiricus (Siberian Chipmunk) · T. siskiyou (Siskiyou Chipmunk) · T. sonomae (Sonoma Chipmunk) · T. speciosus (Lodgepole Chipmunk) · T. speciosus callipeplus (Mt. Pinos Lodgepole Chipmunk) · T. speciosus speciosus (Lodgepole Chipmunk) · T. striatus (Chipmunk) · T. striatus striatus (Eastern Chipmunk) · T. townsendii (Townsend's Chipmunk) · T. umbrinus (Hidden Forest Chipmunk) · T. umbrinus nevadensis (Hidden Forest Chipmunk) · T. umbrinus sedulus (Henry Mountains Chipmunk)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 26, 2007:
- Borror Laboratory of Bioacoustics, Borror Laboratory of Bioacoustics
- Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates, Mammal Collection
- Louisiana State University Museum of Natural Science, Mammal specimens
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Museum of Texas Tech University
- , Mammal specimens
- Royal Ontario Museum, Mammal specimens
- Sternberg Museum of Natural History, Mammal Collection
- UNIBIO, IBUNAM, CNMA/Coleccion Nacional de Mamiferos
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, University of Alaska Museum Mammal Collection
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, University of New Mexico Museum of Southwestern Biology Mammal Collection
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Mammal Specimens
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 109460
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-180207
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13787492
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 180207
- IUCN ID: 245189
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: AMAFB02230
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1115
- Mean = 263.220 meters (863.583 feet), Standard Deviation = 192.980 based on 606 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Linzey, A.V. & Hammerson, G. 2008. Tamias striatus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 05 February 2012. [back]