- The Angel Shark (Squatina squatina) was uplisted from Vulnerable to Critically Endangered in 2006. This large angel shark formerly was a common and important demersal predator in coastal and outer continental shelf sediment habitat in the Northeast Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Seas . Most of this region is now subject to intense demersal fisheries, and the species is highly vulnerable to bycatch in benthic trawls, set nets and bottom longlines that now operate through most of its range . Its abundance has declined dramatically during the past 50 years. It has been declared extinct in the North Sea and has apparently been extirpated from large areas of the northern Mediterranean. It is now extremely uncommon throughout most its remaining range. (Ref 100465)
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Albanian:
Skadhine, Skadhine e bute
Common Names in Arabic:
Mal, Malâk El Bah'r, Sfen, Sfinn, Shekatli, ﻦﻔﺳ
Common Names in Catalan:
Common Names in Croatian:
Razopas, Sklat, Sklat sivac
Common Names in Czech:
Polorejnok Obecn, Polorejnok obecný
Common Names in Danish:
Europ, Europæisk havengel, Havengel, Munkefisk
Common Names in Dutch:
Zee, Zee-engel, Zeeängel, Zeeëngel
Common Names in English:
Angel, Angel fiddle fish, Angel puffy fish, Angel ray, Angel shark, Angelfish, Angelshark, Escat jueu, fiddle fish, Monk, monkfish, shagreen
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Ange, Ange de mer, Ange de mer commun, Angel, Angelot, Antjou, Boudroie, Bourgeois, Bourget, Bourget peisange, L'anelot, L'ange, Martrame, Mordacle, Pe, Peau de chagrin, Peï-angi, Requin-raie, Squatine Occelee
Common Names in Gaelic, Irish:
An Br, An bráthair
Common Names in German:
Chagrin, Engelhai, Europ, europäischer Meerengel, Gemeiner Meerengel, Gemeiner Meerengelm, Meerengel
Common Names in Greek:
Angelos, Anghelosrina, Lyra, Rína, Vi, Vióli, Άγγελος, Βιολί, Βιολόψαρο, Κούβακας, Λύρα, Ρίνα
Common Names in Greek, Modern (1453):
Angelos, Anghelosrina, Lyra, Rina, Vióli, Ρίνα
Common Names in Hebrew:
Common Names in Icelandic:
Baroah, Baroaháfur, Skr, Skrápur
Common Names in Irish:
Common Names in Italian:
Angelo, Angelo di mare, Angeo, Anzolo, Cenericu, Pesce angelo, Pesce squadro, Pesciu angiou, Pisci squadru, Sagrin, Squadre, Squadre 'e rena, Squadro, Squadro pelle nera, Squadru, Squadru lisciu, Squadru monicu, Squaena, Squalena, Squalo angelo
Common Names in Japanese:
Kasuzame, Korozame, Same yasuri
Common Names in Maltese:
Xkatlu, Xkatlu komuni
Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Polish:
Aniol morski a. raszpia
Common Names in Portuguese:
Anjo, Ca, Cação-anjo
Common Names in Russian:
Yevropeisky morskoi angel, ангел морской, расшпиль
Common Names in Serbian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Angel, Angelino, Angelot, Angelote, Escat, Eskat Com, Eskat común, Guitarra, Mennejuela, Mermejuela, Pardón, Peje , Peje ángel, Peje-, Peje-ángel, Pez ángel, Vexigall, Villano, Zabalera
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Turkish:
Keler, Keler balığı, Lekelikeler balığı
Reaches 250 cm.
Found on the continental shelves from close inshore to at least 150 m depth. It lies with only its eyes protruding, buried in sand or mud . Nocturnal  and may be found swimming up off the bottom .
Typically found in water with a depth of 0 to -1,530 meters (0 to -5,020 feet).
Biome: Marine .
A temperate-water bottom-dwelling angel
of the European and
North African continental shelves, occurring on or near the bottom
from close inshore
) in the intertidal or subtidal
zone to at
least 150 m depth. This shark prefers mud
or sandy bottom, where
buried with little more than its eyes protruding. It may
penetrate estuaries and brackish water. The angelshark is nocturnal
and can be found swimming strongly up off the bottom at night, but
is torpid in the daytime and rests on the bottom. In the northern
parts of its range
the angelshark is seasonally migratory, and makes
northwards incursions during the summer. (Compagno in prep.).
Most life history data were provided by Capape et al. (1990) for the Mediterranean. Females reach maturity at 128 to 169 cm, and males at 80 to 132 cm (Lipej et al. 2004), with maximum sizes of 183 cm and possibly up to 244 cm (Compagno 1984, in prep.), with estimates of less than 240 cm in the Mediterranean Sea (Tortonese 1956). Age at maturity and longevity are unknown. This shark is ovoviviparous, with both ovaries functional. It has moderate-sized litters of 7 to 25 young which vary according to the size of the female (Tortonese 1956, Bini 1967, Capapé et al. 1990, Compagno in prep). Records of size at birth are 24 to 30 cm (Compagno in prep.) and 24 cm (Tortonese 1956, Bini 1967). Gestation period is 8 to 10 months (Capapé et al. 1990, Compagno in prep.), born in December to February in the Mediterranean but apparently later in northern parts of its range (July in England). Reproductive age and periodicity, rate of population increase and mortality are unknown.
The angelshark feeds primarily on bony fishes, especially flatfishes (Ellis et al. 1996) but also other demersal fishes and skates , crustaceans and molluscs . Specific items include hake (Merlucius merlucius, Merluciidae), sparids (Pagellus erythrinus, Sparidae), grunts (Pomadasys sp. , Haemulidae) flatfish (Bothus sp., Bothidae, Citharus linguatula, Citharidae), sole (Solea solea, Soleidae), squid (Loligo vulgaris), cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, Sepiola spp. ), and crustaceans (Dorippe lanata, Geryon tridens, Dromia vulgaris, Goneplax rhomboides, Macropipus corregatus, Atelecyclus rotundatus). It occasionally swallows odd items, including eelgrass and seabirds (a cormorant was once recorded) (Compagno in prep.)..
List of Habitats :
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.2 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
- 9.4 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
- 9.7 Marine Neritic - Macroalgal/Kelp
- 9.10 Marine Neritic - Estuaries
- 12 Marine Intertidal
- 12.4 Marine Intertidal - Mud Flats and Salt Flats [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Class: Chondrichthyes ()
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Squalraia acephala de la Pylaie • Squalraia cervicata de la Pylaie • Squalus squatina Linnaeus • Squalus squatina Linnaeus, 1758 • Squatina angelus Blainville • Squatina angelus Gronow • Squatina europaea Swainson • Squatina laevis Cuvier • Squatina lewis Couch • Squatina squatina • Squatina vulgaris Risso
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 27-Oct-2000
Squatina squatina is difficult to identify to species level, therefore many of the records from fishermen reports in the Mediterranean are often assigned only to genus level, though this is the only angel shark known from northern European seas ..
Members of the genus Squatina
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 20 species and subspecies in this genus:
S. aculeata (Monkfish) · S. africana (African Angel Shark) · S. albipunctata (Eastern Angel Shark) · S. argentina (Argentine Angel Shark) · S. armata (South Pacific Angel Shark) · S. australis (Australian Angel Shark) · S. californica (Pacific Angel Shark) · S. dumeril (Atlantic Angel Shark) · S. formosa (Taiwan Angel Shark) · S. guggenheim (Angular Angel Shark) · S. japonca (Yellowmouth Rockfish) · S. japonica (Japanese Angel Shark) · S. nebulosa (Japanese Angel Shark) · S. occulta (Smoothback Angel Shark) · S. oculata (Monkfish) · S. pseudocellata (Western Angel Shark) · S. punctata (Angular Angelshark) · S. squatina (Angel Fiddle Fish) · S. tergocellata (Large-Spotted Angel Shark) · S. tergocellatoides (Ocellated Angel Shark)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- ... Catalogue of the fishes of New York. By Tarleton H. Bean. .. Albany, University of the state of New York, 1903. url p. 45.
- ... The genera of fishes. .. A contribution to the stability of scientific nomenclature. By David Starr Jordan. Stanford University, Calif., The University, 1917-1920. url p. 182.
- A biological survey of the waters of Woods Hole and vicinity / By Francis B. Sumner, Raymond C. Osburn, and Leon J. Cole. Washington: Govt. Print. Off., 1913 url p. 165, p. 737, p. 857.
- A guide to the study of fishes, New York, H. Holt, 1905. url .
- A guide to the study of fishes, by David Starr Jordan. .. New York, H. Holt and Company, 1905. url , , p. 110, p. 548.
- A manual of the vertebrate animals of the northern United States: including the district north and east of the Ozark mountains, south of the Laurentian hills, north of the southern boundary of Virginia, and east of the Missouri river, inclusive of marine species / Chicago:A. C. McClurg, 1916. url .
- Abstract of the proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New York. [New York]: The Society, [1889-1932]. url p. 120, p. 91.
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. New York, New York Academy of Sciences. url p. 351.
- Annual report / New York State Museum. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, c1904-1920. url p. 45, p. 739.
- Annual report of the Commissioners of Fisheries, Game and Forests of the State of New York. Albany, N.Y.: The Commission, 1896-1900 url p. 210.
- Annual report of the Laguna Marine Laboratory / Pomona College. Claremont, Calif.: Dept. of Biology, Pomona College, 1912- url p. 23.
- Bulletin - New York State Museum. Albany: New York State Education Dept. url p. 45, p. 739.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 11, p. 286, p. 46, p. 58.
- Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New YorkAmerican Museum of Natural History1881- url p. 331.
- Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries. Washington, D.C.: Govt. Print. Off., 1905-1950. url p. 165, p. 222, p. 222, p. 228, p. 228, p. 374.
- Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Los Angeles, Calif.: The Academy, 1902-1971. url p. 59.
- Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. [Washington, D.C.?]: Supt. of Docs., G.P.O., 1913-1923. url p. 20.
- Contributions. Providence, R. I. url p. 176.
- Dean bibliography of fishes. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1971-1973. url p. 13, p. 191, p. 218, p. 260, p. 278, p. 478, p. 481, p. 505, p. 541, p. 628, p. 674.
- Fauna of New England, 8. List of the pisces, by William C. Kendall. Boston, Printed for the [Boston] Society [of Natural History] from the G. Saltonstall Fund, 1908. url .
- Fauna of New England. Boston, Printed for the [Boston] Society [of Natural History] from the Gurdon Saltonstall Fund, 1904-25. url p. 10.
- Field book of giant fishes, by J. R. Norman and F. C. Fraser. With 8 plates in full color and over 100 drawings by W. P. C. Tenison. New York, G. P. Putnam url figs. 22-23 , p. 52.
- First annual report of the Laguna Marine Laboratory at Laguna Beach, Orange County, California. Claremont, Calif., Dept. of Biology, Pomona College, 1912. url p. 23.
- Fisheries: Zoological results of the fishing experiments carried out by F.I.S. "Endeavor" 1909-10 under H.C. Dannevig, / Commonwealth Director of Fisheries. Sydney: Published by Direction of the Ministers for Trade and Customs, Hon. Frank Gwynne Tudor and Hon. Littleton E. Groom, 1911- url p. 10.
- Fishes of Australia: a popular and systematic guide to the study of the wealth within our waters, by David G. Stead. With ten full-page plates and eighty-eight illustrations in the text Sydney, W. Brooks & Co., 1906 url p. 277.
- Fishes of the vicinity of New York City / by John Treadwell Nichols, with an introduction by William K. Gregory. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1918. url p. 102.
- Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Editorial board: editor-in-chief John Tee-Van [and others] New Haven, Sears Foundation for Marine Research, Yale Univ., 1948- url p. 537, p. 543, p. 544, p. 546.
- Fishes, New York, H. Holt and Company, 1907. url .
- Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Chapel Hill, N.C. [etc.]Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society [etc.] url p. 166, p. 166.
- Leeches (Hirudinea) their structure, physiology, ecology and embryology / by K.H. Mann. With an appendix on the systematics of marine leeches, by E. W. Knight-Jones. New York, Pergamon Press, 1962. url p. 184.
- Manual of the vertebrate animals of the northern U.S.. .. inclusive of the marine species. Chicago, McClurg, 1894, c1876-88. url .
- Marine and estuarine environments, organisms, and geology of the Cape Cod region; an indexed bibliography, 1665-1965 [by] Anne E. Yentsch [and others. Woods Hole, Mass., Systematics Ecology Program, Marine Biological Laboratory[c1966] url p. 165.
- Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, at Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. Cambridge [Mass.]: The Museum, 1876-1940. url p. 255.
- Memoirs: Australian Museum. Sydney: The Museum, 1851- url p. 37.
- Monogenetic trematodes: their systematics and phylogeny / by Boris E. Bychowsky; edited by William J. Hargis, Jr.; translated by Pierre C. Oustinoff. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Biological Sciences, c1961. url p. 450, p. 627.
- Occasional papers of the Boston Society of Natural History. Boston, Boston Society of Natural History, 1869-1941. url , p. 10.
- Pacific Plate biogeography, with special reference to shorefishes / Victor G. Springer. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982. url p. 96.
- Pamphlets on forestry. Fish and game. [1900?- url p. 58.
- Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia url , , p. 236, p. 342, p. 35, p. 5, p. 594, p. 599, p. 599, p. 670, p. 689, p. 689, p. 70, p. 712, p. 712.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 377, p. 381, p. 382, p. 92.
- Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 15 1892 Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.] url p. 134, p. 506, p. 69, p. 737.
- Report of the Commissioner for. .. / United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Washington: G.P.O., 1874-1905. url , , p. 111, p. 220, p. 220, p. 264, p. 395, p. 49, p. 798.
- Report of the United States Commissioner of Fisheries for the fiscal year. .. with appendixes Washington: G.P.O., 1914- url p. 22.
- Sensory biology of sharks, skates, and rays / editors Edward S. Hodgson, Robert F. Mathewson. Arlington, Va.: Office of Naval Research, Dept. of the Navy: for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1978. url p. 284.
- Shadows in the sea: the sharks, skates and rays [by] Harold W. McCormick and Tom Allen, with William E. Young. Philadelphia, Chilton Books url p. 286, p. 412.
- The Biological bulletin. Woods Hole, Mass.: Marine Biological Laboratory, url p. 513.
- The Myxosporidia, or Psorosperms of fishes, and the epidemics produced by them. By R.R. Gurley. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1894. url , p. 160.
- The Scottish naturalist. Arbroath [etc.]T. Buncle & Co. [etc.] url p. 264.
- The Trematoda of British fishes. London, Sold by B. Quaritch, 1947. url p. 339, p. 345.
- The fishes found in the vicinity of Woods Hole. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1898. url p. 89.
- The fishes of North Carolina / Raleigh, N.C.: E.M. Uzzell, 1907. url , .
- The fishes of North Carolina, by Hugh M. Smith. Raleigh, E. M. Uzzell & co., state printers and binders, 1907. url p. 21, p. 38.
- The fishes of North and Middle America: a descriptive catalogue of the species of fish-like vertebrates found in the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama / by David Starr Jordan and Barton Warren Evermann. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum, 1896-1900. url p. 58.
- The genera of fishes. ..: A contribution to the stability of scientific nomenclature / By David Starr Jordan. Stanford University, Calif.: The University, 1917-1920. url p. 182.
- The underwater guide to marine life [by] Carleton Ray and Elgin Ciampi. New York, Barnes url p. 161.
- Transactions and proceedings and report of the Royal Society of South Australia (Incorporated). Adelaide: W.C. Rigby, 1904-1911. url p. 292.
- Transactions and proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia (Incorporated). Adelaide: W.C. Rigby, 1912-1937. url p. 164.
- University of California publications in zoology. Berkeley: University Press, 1906- url p. 168, p. 382.
- [A biological survey of the waters of Woods Hole and vicinity. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1913] url p. 165.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Morey, G., Serena, F., Mancusi, C., Fowler, S.L., Dipper, F. & Ellis, J. 2006. Squatina squatina. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 04February2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, Taxonomic Information Sytem for the Belgian coastal area
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, iziko South African Museum - Shark Collection
- Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Ichtyologie
- Provider, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums
- Senckenberg, Collection Pisces
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Fishes
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 138989
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-23282
- Fishbase Species ID: 736
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 160788
- IUCN ID: 243515
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 125438
- Muus, B.J. and J.G. Nielsen (1999). Sea fish. Scandinavian Fishing Year Book, Hedehusene, Denmark. 340 p. [back]
- Compagno, L.J.V. (1984). FAO species catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. (125, Vol. 4, Part 1), 249 p. [back]
- Mean = -251.330 meters (-824.573 feet), Standard Deviation = 516.890 based on 45 observations. Ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Morey, G., Serena, F., Mancusi, C., Fowler, S.L., Dipper, F. & Ellis, J. 2006. Squatina squatina. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 February 2012. [back]
- Dulvy, N.K. and J.D. Reynolds (1997). Evolutionary transitions among egg-laying, live-bearing and maternal inputs in sharks and rays. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 264:1309-1315. [back]