Family : Angel sharks ; Occurs on the outer continental shelf and the upper slope . Found from shoreline to depths of 1,375 m . Feeds on small bottom fishes , crustaceans and bivalves . Ovoviviparous. Will bite when captured and can inflict nasty lacerations with its trap-like jaws and pointed teeth.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Angel shark, Atlantic angel shark, Atlantic angelshark, monkfish, sand devil
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Ange De L´atlantique, Ange de l'Atlantique, Ange de mer de sable
Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Spanish:
Angelote Del Atl, angelote del Atlántico, angelote del AtlÃ¡ntico, Tibur, Tiburón, Tiburón ángel
Common Names in Swedish:
Karibisk Havs, Karibisk havsängel
Species Squatina dumeril
Distinctive Features: Distinctive features of this shark
its flattened, skate-like body consisting of dorsally
and a terminal mouth
. The Atlantic angel
shark also possesses large
the eyes and expanded pectoral fins, both of which
distinguish this shark from other species. This shark also has small
dorsal fins of equal size located near the tail.
Dentition: This angel shark has three rows of twenty teeth on the top and eighteen on the bottom . The teeth are conical in shape with broad bases and smooth edges .
Denticles : The dermal denticles on the dorsal side are spaced evenly in corresponding rows along the surface. They have broad bases, are conical in shape, and slightly recurved. Around the eyes are larger denticles formed in clusters of 5 or 6.
The Atlantic angel shark ranges from a bluish-gray to an ashy-gray in color with a white underside. The head and portions of the fins have a reddish hue. There is a red spot located on both the throat and abdomen. These spots are arranged in an irregular fashion and may also be present over the entire dorsal side. This varied and seemingly sporadic coloring helps to camouflage this species when it is buried within the sea floor.
The adult Atlantic angel shark is relatively small, typically ranging from 3 to 4 feet (91-122 cm) in length , although occasionally reaching 6 feet (about 183 cm). Maturity is attained at 35-41in or (90-105 cm).
S. dumeril is considered a bottom dweller. It can generally be located buried in sand or mud at the ocean floor. In the northern areas of its distribution, this shark dwells in swallow water while found in deeper water (420 feet/ 128 meters) in its southern range .
Typically found in water with a depth of 0 to -2,278 meters (0 to -7,474 feet).
Biome: Marine .
Little is known about this species. It is found seasonally in shallower
water. Off the eastern United
States it appears to move inshore
and summer, and disappears, apparently into deeper water
in other seasons
Maturity is probably reached around 90 to 107 cm TL . Reproductive mode is aplacental viviparous with only the left ovary functional. Pupping occurs in June or July with pups measuring 28 to 30 cm TL at birth. Litters contain up to 25 pups. Birth usually occurs at depth (~20 to 30 m ).
Eats small bottom fishes (flounders , skates and other bottom fishes), crustaceans and bivalves .
Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length): Female: 90 to 105 cm TL, median length 83.5 cm FL (Baremore and Carlson 2004); Male: 92 to 107 cm TL, median length 88.7 cm FL (Baremore and Carlson 2004).
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): 152 cm TL.
Size at birth: 28 to 30 cm TL.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size : Up to 25/litter (Compagno in prep. a); 8 (+/- 1.82) pups (Baremore and Carlson 2004).
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality : Unknown..
List of Habitats :
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.1 Marine Neritic - Pelagic
- 10 Marine Oceanic
- 10.1 Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m) [more info]
The Atlantic angel shark is an ovoviviparous species with eggs that develop in enclosed capsules and hatch in the uteri. A litter usually consists of 16 pups , however litter sizes as large as 25 have been reported. Birthing usually occurs in the spring and summer months in depths of 60-90 feet (18-27 meters).
- Family: s on the outer continental shelf and the upper ()
- Order: Squatiniformes ()
- Phylum: Chordata () - Chordates
Squatina Dum éril
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 27-Oct-2000
Members of the genus Squatina
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 20 species and subspecies in this genus:
S. aculeata (Monkfish) · S. africana (African Angel Shark) · S. albipunctata (Eastern Angel Shark) · S. argentina (Argentine Angel Shark) · S. armata (South Pacific Angel Shark) · S. australis (Australian Angel Shark) · S. californica (Pacific Angel Shark) · S. dumeril (Atlantic Angel Shark) · S. formosa (Taiwan Angel Shark) · S. guggenheim (Angular Angel Shark) · S. japonca (Yellowmouth Rockfish) · S. japonica (Japanese Angel Shark) · S. nebulosa (Japanese Angel Shark) · S. occulta (Smoothback Angel Shark) · S. oculata (Monkfish) · S. pseudocellata (Western Angel Shark) · S. punctata (Angular Angelshark) · S. squatina (Angel Fiddle Fish) · S. tergocellata (Large-Spotted Angel Shark) · S. tergocellatoides (Ocellated Angel Shark)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A guide book to the marine fishes of Rhode Island. Photos by the author. Watch Hill, R. I., Book and Tackle Shop url p. 15.
- Copeia. [New York, N.Y., etc.]: American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. url p. 36.
- Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Editorial board: editor-in-chief John Tee-Van [and others] New Haven, Sears Foundation for Marine Research, Yale Univ., 1948- url , p. 539.
- Guide to marine fishes; [a new method for identification of marine fishes. New York]New York University Press url p. 252, p. 430.
- Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, at Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. Cambridge [Mass.]: The Museum, 1876-1940. url p. 252.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 145, p. 192.
- Report of the United States Commissioner of Fisheries for the fiscal year. .. with appendixes Washington: G.P.O., 1914- url p. 22.
- Shadows in the sea: the sharks, skates and rays [by] Harold W. McCormick and Tom Allen, with William E. Young. Philadelphia, Chilton Books url p. 286, p. 412.
- Special scientific report. Seattle, National Marine Fisheries Service; for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1949-1971. url p. 3.
- The Bulletin of zoological nomenclature. London, International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. url p. 98.
- American Fisheries Society. Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United states, Canada, and Mexico Sixth Edition. Special Publication 29.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Compagno, Leonard J.V. (from FishBase).
- FishBase. Release date: January 5, 2010
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 02, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 6 providers.
- Hansen, Chris. Florida Museum of Natural History
- Heupel, M.R. & Carlson, J.K. 2006. Squatina dumeril. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 04February2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 02, 2008:
- FishBase: FishBase DiGIR Provider - Philippine Server
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: ECNASAP - East Coast North America Strategic Assessment (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: iziko South African Museum - Shark Collection
- Museum national d'histoire naturelle: Ichtyologie
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University: MCZ Fish Collection
- UNIBIO, IBUNAM: CNPE/Coleccion Nacional de Peces
- University of Kansas Biodiversity Research Center: Fish Collection
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 138983
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-29542
- Fishbase Species ID: 731
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14691927
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 160787
- IUCN ID: 243506
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 125431
- Smith, C.L. (1997). National Audubon Society field guide to tropical marine fishes of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 720 p. [back]
- Mean = -123.080 meters (-403.806 feet), Standard Deviation = 614.240 based on 173 observations. Ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Heupel, M.R. & Carlson, J.K. 2006. Squatina dumeril. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 February 2012. [back]