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Squatina dumeril

(Atlantic angel shark)

Overview

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Family : Angel sharks ; Occurs on the outer continental shelf and the upper slope . Found from shoreline to depths of 1,375 m [1]. Feeds on small bottom fishes , crustaceans and bivalves . Ovoviviparous. Will bite when captured and can inflict nasty lacerations with its trap-like jaws and pointed teeth.

Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Danish:

Sanddj, Sanddjævel

Common Names in Dutch:

Zandduivel

Common Names in English:

Angel shark, Atlantic angel shark, Atlantic angelshark, monkfish, sand devil

Common Names in Finnish:

Atlantinmerienkeli

Common Names in French:

Ange De L´atlantique, Ange de l'Atlantique, Ange de mer de sable

Common Names in German:

Atlantischer Engelhai

Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:

杜氏扁鯊, 杜氏扁鲨

Common Names in Polish:

Ryna

Common Names in Spanish:

Angelote Del Atl, angelote del Atlántico, angelote del Atlántico, Tibur, Tiburón, Tiburón ángel

Common Names in Spanish, Castilian:

Angelote del Atlántico, Tiburón, Tiburón ángel

Common Names in Swedish:

Karibisk Havs, Karibisk havsängel

Description

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Physical Description

Species Squatina dumeril

Distinctive Features: Distinctive features of this shark include its flattened, skate-like body consisting of dorsally located eyes and a terminal mouth . The Atlantic angel shark also possesses large spiracles behind the eyes and expanded pectoral fins, both of which distinguish this shark from other species. This shark also has small dorsal fins of equal size located near the tail.

Dentition: This angel shark has three rows of twenty teeth on the top and eighteen on the bottom . The teeth are conical in shape with broad bases and smooth edges .

Denticles : The dermal denticles on the dorsal side are spaced evenly in corresponding rows along the surface. They have broad bases, are conical in shape, and slightly recurved. Around the eyes are larger denticles formed in clusters of 5 or 6.

Color:

The Atlantic angel shark ranges from a bluish-gray to an ashy-gray in color with a white underside. The head and portions of the fins have a reddish hue. There is a red spot located on both the throat and abdomen. These spots are arranged in an irregular fashion and may also be present over the entire dorsal side. This varied and seemingly sporadic coloring helps to camouflage this species when it is buried within the sea floor.

Size/Age/Growth

The adult Atlantic angel shark is relatively small, typically ranging from 3 to 4 feet (91-122 cm) in length , although occasionally reaching 6 feet (about 183 cm). Maturity is attained at 35-41in or (90-105 cm).

Habitat

S. dumeril is considered a bottom dweller. It can generally be located buried in sand or mud at the ocean floor. In the northern areas of its distribution, this shark dwells in swallow water while found in deeper water (420 feet/ 128 meters) in its southern range .

Typically found in water with a depth of 0 to -2,278 meters (0 to -7,474 feet).[2]

Biome: Marine .

Ecology: Little is known about this species. It is found seasonally in shallower water. Off the eastern United States it appears to move inshore in the spring and summer, and disappears, apparently into deeper water in other seasons .

Maturity is probably reached around 90 to 107 cm TL . Reproductive mode is aplacental viviparous with only the left ovary functional. Pupping occurs in June or July with pups measuring 28 to 30 cm TL at birth. Litters contain up to 25 pups. Birth usually occurs at depth (~20 to 30 m ).

Eats small bottom fishes (flounders , skates and other bottom fishes), crustaceans and bivalves .

Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length): Female: 90 to 105 cm TL, median length 83.5 cm FL (Baremore and Carlson 2004); Male: 92 to 107 cm TL, median length 88.7 cm FL (Baremore and Carlson 2004).
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): 152 cm TL.
Size at birth: 28 to 30 cm TL.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size : Up to 25/litter (Compagno in prep. a); 8 (+/- 1.82) pups (Baremore and Carlson 2004).
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality : Unknown.[3].

List of Habitats :

Biology

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Diet

Feeds on a variety of bottom dwelling organisms . Mollusks and crustaceans occupy a large part of the shark's diet , as do bottom dwelling fishes such as flounders , skates , and stingrays.

Reproduction

The Atlantic angel shark is an ovoviviparous species with eggs that develop in enclosed capsules and hatch in the uteri. A litter usually consists of 16 pups , however litter sizes as large as 25 have been reported. Birthing usually occurs in the spring and summer months in depths of 60-90 feet (18-27 meters).

Behavior

Predators:

Larger species of fish and marine mammals are potential predators of the Atlantic angel shark .

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

Squatina Dum éril

Notes

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 27-Oct-2000

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Squatina

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 21 species and subspecies in this genus:

S. aculeata (Monkfish) · S. africana (African Angel Shark) · S. albipunctata (Eastern Angel Shark) · S. argentina (Argentine Angel Shark) · S. armata (South Pacific Angel Shark) · S. australis (Australian Angel Shark) · S. californica (Pacific Angel Shark) · S. dumeril (Atlantic Angel Shark) · S. formosa (Taiwan Angel Shark) · S. guggenheim (Angular Angel Shark) · S. japonca (Yellowmouth Rockfish) · S. japonica (Japanese Angel Shark) · S. legnota (Indonesian Angelshark) · S. nebulosa (Japanese Angel Shark) · S. occulta (Smoothback Angel Shark) · S. oculata (Monkfish) · S. pseudocellata (Western Angel Shark) · S. punctata (Angular Angelshark) · S. squatina (Angel Fiddle Fish) · S. tergocellata (Large-Spotted Angel Shark) · S. tergocellatoides (Ocellated Angel Shark)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 02, 2008:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Smith, C.L. (1997). National Audubon Society field guide to tropical marine fishes of the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York. 720 p. [back]
  2. Mean = -123.080 meters (-403.806 feet), Standard Deviation = 614.240 based on 173 observations. Ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
  3. Heupel, M.R. & Carlson, J.K. 2006. Squatina dumeril. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 February 2012. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-11-21