- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Linnaeus, 1758) Cuvier, 1795
- Class: Bivalvia () - Linnaeus, 1758 - Bivalves
- Phylum: Mollusca () - (Linnaeus, 1758) Cuvier, 1795 - Molluscs
- Superphylum: Eutrochozoa ()
- Infrakingdom: Lophotrochozoa ()
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Members of the genus Spondylus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 16 species and subspecies in this genus:
S. americanus americanus (Atlantic Thorny Oyster) · S. cumingi (Pipe Fish) · S. darwini (Smooth Angler) · S. deforgesi (Goosefish) · S. depressus (Spiny Batfish) · S. eastae (Polka-Dot Batfish) · S. erectospinus (African Skate) · S. heidkeae (Blackchin Guitarfish) · S. ictericus ictericus (Digitate Thorny Oyster) · S. igneus (Blond Ray) · S. mireilleae (Halavi's Guitarfish) · S. ocellatus (Speckled Guitarfish) · S. pickeringae (Fiddlefish) · S. proneri (Roker) · S. smytheae (Southern Fiddler Ray) · S. vexillum (Burmese Trout)
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- A manual of the Mollusca; or, A rudimentary treatise of recent and fossil shells, by S. P. Woodward. Illustrated by A. N. Waterhouse and Joseph Wilson Lowry. London, J. Weale, 1851-56. url p. 259.
- Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. 1860 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, -1965. url p. 271.
- Cassell's natural history. Ed. by P. Martin Duncan. .. London [etc]Cassell & Company, Limited, 1896. url .
- Journal of conchology. London: D. Bogue. url .
- Journal of entomology and zoology. Claremont, Calif., U.S.A.: Pomona College Dept. of Zoology, [1913- url p. 40, p. 40.
- Lectures on Mollusca; or, "Shell-fish" and their allies. Prepared for the Smithsonian institution, by Philip P. Carpenter...of Warrington, England. WashingtonPrinted at the Congressional globe office1861 url p. 123.
- Memoirs read before the Boston Society of Natural History. Boston, [Boston Society of Natural History]1862-1946. url p. 352.
- Report to the government of Ceylon on the pearl oyster fisheries of the gulf of Manaar, by W.A. Herdman. .. With supplementary reports upon the marine biology of Ceylon, by other naturalists. Pub. at the request of the colonial government by the Royal society. London, 1903-06. url p. 288.
- Shells of land and water; a familiar introduction to the study of the mollusks. Chicago, A.W. Mumford, 1903. url , , p. 74.
- Structural and systematic conchology: an introduction to the study of the Mollusca... By George W. Tryon, jr.... Philadelphia: The author, 1882-84. url p. 285, p. 285.
- Studies in evolution; mainly reprints of occasional papers selected from the publications of the Laboratory of invertebrate paleontology, Peabody Museum, Yale University. New York, C. Scribner, 1901. url , , , .
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 207.
- The Philippine journal of science. Manila: Bureau of Science url , p. 211, p. 213, p. 326, p. 375, p. 407.
- The Victorian naturalist. [Melbourne]Field Naturalists Club of Victoria. url p. 50.
- The Williams collection of shells: a brief account of the conchological cabinet of Mrs. Alice L. Williams / by George Halcott Chadwick. Chicago: [Marsh, Aitken & Curtis Co.], 1908. url p. 85.
- The fauna and geography of the Maldive and Laccadive archipelagoes: being the account of the work carried on and of the collections made by an expedition during the years 1899 and 1900 / Ed. by J. Stanley Gardiner. Cambridge: University Press, 1903-06. url p. 621.
- The museum of natural history, with introductory essay on the natural history of the primeval world: being a popular account of the structure, habits, and classification of the various departments of the animal kingdom, quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fishes, shells, and insects, including the insects d by Sir John Richardson, William S. Dallas, T. Spencer Cobbold, and William Baird & Adam White. Edinburgh: William MacKenzie, [1869?] url .
- The ocean world: being a description of the sea and some of its inhabitants. New York, D. Appleton and Co. url .
- The shell book; a popular guide to a knowledge of the families of living mollusks, and an aid to the identification of shells native and foreign, New York, Doubleday, Page & company, 1908. url .
- Transactions of Vassar Brothers Institute, and its Scientific Section. Poughkeepsie, N.Y.: Vassar Brothers Institute, [1883-1896]. url p. 279.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 16, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 08, 2007:
- Academy of Natural Sciences, Academy of Natural Sciences Malacology Database
- Academy of Natural Sciences, Academy of Natural Sciences OBIS Mollusc Database [Darwin Core]
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, Academy of Natural Sciences OBIS Mollusc Database
- National Chemical Laboratory, IndOBIS, Indian Ocean Node of OBIS