Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of -191 meters (-626 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- Phylum: Mollusca () - (Linnaeus, 1758) Cuvier, 1795 - Molluscs
- Superphylum: Eutrochozoa ()
- Infrakingdom: Lophotrochozoa ()
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Members of the genus Spondylus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 16 species and subspecies in this genus:
S. americanus americanus (Atlantic Thorny Oyster) · S. cumingi (Pipe Fish) · S. darwini (Smooth Angler) · S. deforgesi (Goosefish) · S. depressus (Spiny Batfish) · S. eastae (Polka-Dot Batfish) · S. erectospinus (African Skate) · S. heidkeae (Blackchin Guitarfish) · S. ictericus ictericus (Digitate Thorny Oyster) · S. igneus (Blond Ray) · S. mireilleae (Halavi's Guitarfish) · S. ocellatus (Speckled Guitarfish) · S. pickeringae (Fiddlefish) · S. proneri (Roker) · S. smytheae (Southern Fiddler Ray) · S. vexillum (Burmese Trout)
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- The conchologist's first book, or, A system of testaceous malacology, arranged expressly for the use of schools: in which the animals, according to Cuvier, are given with the shells, a great number of new species added, and the whole brought up, as accurately as possible, to the present condition of the science by Edgar A. Poe; with illustrations of two hundred and fifteen shells, presenting a correct type of each genus. Philadelphia: Published for the author, by Haswell, Barrington, and Haswell, 1839. url p. 75.
- The conchologist's nomenclator: a catalogue of all the recent species of shells included under the subkingdom "Mollusca, " with their authorities. .. / by Agnes Catlow; assisted by Lovell Reeve. London: Reeve Brothers, 1845. url p. 85.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 16, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 25, 2007:
- Academy of Natural Sciences, Academy of Natural Sciences OBIS Mollusc Database [Darwin Core]
- Provider, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums