Family : Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks ; A little-known inshore shark of the continental shelf, found down to at least 12 m depth. Feeds on small bony fishes, including sea catfish and grunts , but also newborn scalloped hammerheads, swimming crabs, squids , and shrimp. Viviparous with a yolk-sac placenta ; number of young probably 6 to 9 per litter .
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Catalan:
Common Names in Creole, French:
Common Names in Croatian:
Common Names in Danish:
Sm, Småøjet hammerhaj
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Curry Shark, Bonnet, Golden Hammerhead, Great hammerhead, Hammerhead, Shark, smalleye, smalleye hammerhead, Smalleye Hammerhead Shark
Common Names in French:
Requin-marteau ? Petits Yeux, Requin Marteau , Requin marteau à petits yeux, Requin-Griset, Requin-Marteau , Requin-marteau à petits yeux
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Greek:
Mikrozygena, Δεκανίκι, Ζύγαινα, Μικροζύγαινα, Πατερίτσα, Προπέλα, Σφύρνα
Common Names in Greek, Modern (1453):
Common Names in Italian:
Martello occhi piccoli, Pesce stampella
Common Names in Malayalam:
Kannankodi, കണ്ണന് കൊടി, കണ്ണന് കോടി
Common Names in Maltese:
Krozza, Kurazza, Kurazza rasha zghira, Pixximartell
Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:
Common Names in Marathi:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Ca, Cação-chapéu-armado, Cação-martelo, Cação-rudela, Cambeva, Chap, Chapéu-armado, Marteleiro, Martelo, Peixe-martelo, Tubar, Tubarão-martelo
Common Names in Spanish:
Cornuda de corona, Cornuda ojichica, cornuda tudes, Pez martillo, Tibur, Tibur?n, Tiburón martillo
Common Names in Swedish:
Sm, Småögd hammarhaj
Common Names in Telugu:
Common Names in Turkish:
Typically found in water with a depth of 0 to -4,145 meters (0 to -13,599 feet).
Biome: Marine .
Sphyrna tudes is a small, inshore
occupy inshore muddy beach
areas, and adults
to a maximum size of 150 cm TL
are found in depths of 5 to 40 m
Geographic variation in maturity and aspects of reproductive biology are apparent:
Off Trinidad, males mature at ~80 cm TL; females at ~98 cm TL and are reported to ovulate and mate during August. Following a ten month gestation the young are born in shallow water from late May to June. Size at birth is ~30 cm TL. The annual reproductive cycle of this species results from gestation running concurrently with the ovarian cycle, and females are fertilized soon after parturition . Litter size 5 to 12 pups (Castro 1989).
Off northern Brazil (Maranhão state) the smallest pregnant female observed was 101 cm TL, however, the estimated size at 50% maturity for females was 114 cm TL. The estimated size of first maturity for males in northern Brazil was 92.1 cm TL, considerably higher than off Trinidad. Pregnant females are observed from June to October and also from January to April. The highest gonadal indices where observed in males from May to November and in March. Uterine eggs and embryos measuring 34 mm TL were observed in June. Embryos measuring 90, 150, 190 and 237 mm TL were observed in January. The number of embryos in females 101 to 132 cm TL ranged between 5?19. There is a strong relationship between the fecundity and the size of females (Lessa et al. 1998).
The characteristic golden colour of live specimens results from a pigment present in their penaeid shrimp and ariid catfish diet ..
List of Habitats :
Sphyraena tudes (Valenciennes • Sphyrna bigelowi Springer • Spyrna tudes • Spyrna tudes (Valenciennes • Spyrna tudes (Valenciennes, 1822) • Zygaena tudes Valenciennes • Zygaena tudes Valenciennes, 1822
Status: Accepted Name
First described: Valenciennes, A. Sur le sous-genre Marteau, Zygaena. Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Paris 9:222-228., 1822.
Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 28-Oct-2000
The historical confusion that surrounds this species' taxonomy is pending resolution and nomenclatural stability . The current lectotype of this species (MNHN 1049 from Nice, France) most likely represents S. couardi, and the paralectotype (MNHN 1019 from Cayenne, French Guiana) most likely represents S. bigelowi. The retention of the name S. tudes would require the rejection of the current lectotype and redesignation of the Cayenne specimen as the lectotype. Compagno (in preparation b ) outlines the history and problems associated with this issue..
Members of the genus Sphyrna
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 12 species and subspecies in this genus:
S. corona (Scolloped Bonnethead) · S. couardi (Whitefin Hammerhead) · S. diplana (Scalloped Hammerhead Shark) · S. lewini (Scalloped Hammerhead Shark) · S. media (Scoophead Shark) · S. mokarran (Squat-Headed Hammerhead Shark) · S. tiburo (Bonnet Hammerhead) · S. tiburo tiburo (Bonnet Hammerhead) · S. tiburo vespertina (Bonnet Hammerhead) · S. tudes (Curry Shark) · S. zigaena (Round-Headed Hammer Head Shark) · S. zygaena (Round-Headed Hammer Head Shark)
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- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Compagno, Leonard J.V. (from FishBase).
- FishBase 2006.
- FishBase. Release date: January 5, 2010
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 01, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 4 providers.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Mycock, S.G., Lessa, R. & Almeida, Z. 2006. Sphyrna tudes. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 04February2012.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 01, 2008:
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Fish Collection
- FishBase: FishBase DiGIR Provider - Philippine Server
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: iziko South African Museum - Fish Collection
- Museum national d'histoire naturelle: Ichtyologie
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University: MCZ Fish Collection
- Royal Ontario Museum: Fish specimens
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 138929
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-133951
- Fishbase Species ID: 55029
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 160519
- IUCN ID: 243301
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 125316
- Compagno, L.J.V. (1984). FAO species catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. (125, Vol. 4, Part 2), 655 p. [back]
- Mean = -953.360 meters (-3,127.822 feet), Standard Deviation = 2,091.420 based on 11 observations. Ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Mycock, S.G., Lessa, R. & Almeida, Z. 2006. Sphyrna tudes. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 February 2012. [back]