Family : Sleeper sharks ; Found on continental and insular shelves and upper slopes down to at least 1,200 m . In the Arctic and boreal Atlantic, it occurs inshore in the intertidal and at the surface in shallow bays and river mouths during colder months, retreating to depths of 180-550 m when the temperature rises . Feeds on pelagic and bottom fish , sharks and skates , seals and small cetaceans , sea birds, squids , crabs, amphipods , marine snails, brittle stars, sea urchins, and jellyfish . Also utilized fresh and dried for human and sled-dog food (flesh is said to be toxic when fresh); eskimos also used the skin to make boots , and the sharp lower dental bands as knives for cutting hair (Ref. 247). A very sluggish shark .
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Bulgarian:
Common Names in Catalan, Valencian:
Tauró de Grenlàndia
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in Croatian:
Grenlandski morski pas
Common Names in Czech:
Common Names in Danish:
Almindelig Havkal, Gr, Grønlandshaj, Havhaj, Havkal, Ishaj
Common Names in Dutch:
Groenlandse Haai, Ijshaai
Common Names in English:
Gray Shark, Greenland Shark, Greenland Sleeper Shark, Ground Shark, Gurry Shark, Large Sleeper Shark, Oakettle, Sleeper, Sleeper Shark
Common Names in Faroese:
Common Names in Finnish:
Holkeri, Holkeri (kala)
Common Names in French:
Laimargue Du Groenland, Apocalle, Laimargue, Laimargue Atlantique, Requin Du Groenland
Common Names in German:
Eishai, Gr, Gröndlandhai, Grönlandhai, Grundforelle, Grundhai
Common Names in Greek (modern):
Καρχαρίας της Γροιλανδίας
Common Names in Greenlandic:
Common Names in Icelandic:
Common Names in Inuktitut:
Ekaludjuag, Ekalugss, Ekalugssuak, Ekalugssûp Piarâ, Ekalugss˚p Piarâ, Ekalukjuak, Eqaludjuaq, Eqalugssuaq, Eqalukjuag, Eqaluksuaq, Eqalukuak, Eqalusuaq, Iqalugjuaq, Iqalujjuaq, Iqalukuak
Common Names in Italian:
Lemargo, Squalo Di Groenlandia, Squalo Di Groenlandia Lemargo
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Macedonian:
Гренландска ајкула спијач
Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Norwegian Nynorsk:
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Lobo, Pailona, Tubar, Tubarão da groenlândia, Tubarao Da Gronel, Tubarao Da Gronelândia, Tubarão da noite, Tubarao De Gronel, Tubarao De Gronelândia, Tubarão-Da-Noite
Common Names in Romanian:
Rechin de Groelanda
Common Names in Rumanian:
Rechin De Groelanda
Common Names in Russian:
Poljarnaja akula, Акула пол, Акула полярная атлантическая, Гренландская полярная акула
Common Names in Slovak:
Common Names in Spanish:
Tibur?n Boreal, Tibur, Tiburón Boreal, Tollo Boreal, Tollo De Cachos, Tollo De Groenlandia
Common Names in Spanish, Castilian:
Tiburón boreal, Tollo boreal, Tollo de Groenlandia
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Turkish:
Groenlandse Haai, Grönland köpek balığı
Common Names in Ukrainian:
Акула ґренландська, Полярна акула
Common Names in Vietnamese:
Species Somniosus microcephalus
Distinctive Features: The Greenland shark
is characterized by its
large, heavy-set body which gives it a sluggish appearance
It has a short, rounded
snout, thin lips
, and very small eyes. The
dorsal and pectoral fins are very small, and it lacks spines in its
dorsal fins. The gill openings are very small in comparison to its
size and are located low on the sides of the shark's head
Coloration : The Greenland shark varies between a black, brown, and grey color. Although the shark is usually uniform in color, it may often be marked with dark lines or white spots along its back and sides.
Dentition: The teeth of the Greenland shark are very different in comparison of the top and bottom sets . The upper teeth are very thin and pointy and lack serrations . They range in number from 48 to 52. The lower teeth are interlocking and are broad and square , containing short, smooth cusps that point outward. The lower teeth range in number from 50 to 52.
Denticles : The denticles of the Greenland shark are uniform in characteristics over the entire body of the shark. They are cone shaped and curved towards the rear of the shark. They are in longitudal columns and are closely spaced. They have high axial crests and low lateral crests, and the bases of the denticles have four sides.
Size, Age, and Growth: Greenland sharks average in size from 8-14 feet (244 to 427 cm) with females being the larger sex. This shark reaches a maximum length of about 21 feet (640 cm); although, it may grow to 24 feet (730 cm). Growth of the shark is very slow due to the cold temperatures of its climate.
The Greenland shark ranges in depths of 0-3,937 feet (0 to 1,200 m ) and temperatures of 34-68°F (1 to 12°C). In the north, the shark migrates near shore in search of warmer waters. It is usually spotted near the surface during the winter and retreats to depths of 591-1,804 feet (180 to 550 m) during the summer. In southern waters the shark is found near continental shelves and slopes and is found at a depth of about 3,937 feet (1,200 m). In 1988, an unmanned submarine spotted a 20 feet (6 m) long male Greenland shark at a depth of 7,218 feet (2,200 m) at the wreck of the SS Central America, which sank off the coast of Savannah, Georgia in 1857. This is 3,281 feet (1,000 m) deeper than the maximum reported depth of the shark and 273 miles (440 km ) south of its southernmost sighting in North Carolina.
Biome: Marine .
, ranging from river mouths
shelf and slope waters
. Usually found in depths of 0 to 1,200 m
but one shark
was observed at 2,200 m off North Carolina (Herdendorf
and Berra 1995, Compagno in prep. a). During winter months in the
and boreal Atlantic, the species occurs in the intertidal
zone and at the surface in shallow bays and river mouths, moving
into depths of 180 to 550 m during warmer months. At lower latitudes
of Maine and North Sea
) the species occurs on the continental
shelves with possible movements into shallower water during spring
and summer (Compagno in prep. a). Short term
tracking studies of
the Greenland sharks
under ice off Baffin Island during late Spring
suggest that individuals remained at deeper depths during the morning,
gradually moving into shallower depths in the afternoon and at night
(Skomal and Benz 2004). The species has been recorded in water temperatures
of 0.6 to 12°C (Compagno in prep. a).
Maximum size is uncertain, but is at least 640 cm TL , possibly to 730 cm TL, however most adults are between 244 and 427 cm TL (Compagno in prep. a). Aplacental viviparous with one observed female carrying 10 young (Compagno in prep. a). Tagging studies have shown the species to be very slow growing with medium size sharks appearing to grow at a rate of 1 cm per year (Hansen 1957, Castro 1983, Castro et al. 1999).
Although reportedly sluggish, feeds on a variety of prey including invertebrates , fish, seabirds, seals as well as offal (see Compagno in prep. a for more details).
Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length cm): Unknown.
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): 640?730 cm TL.
Size at birth: ~37 to 38 cm TL (Bjerkan and Koefoed 1957, Compagno in prep. a).
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size : 10.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown..
List of Habitats :
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.1 Marine Neritic - Pelagic
- 10 Marine Oceanic
- 10.1 Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m) [more info]
The Greenland shark's most common food consists of a large variety of ocean dwellers such as other small sharks , skates , eels, herring , capelin, char, various gadoids, redfish, sculpins , lumpfish, wolfish, and flounders . Marine mammals, such as seals and porpoises , are often taken by Greenland sharks despite it being characterized as a very sluggish creature. A few Greenland shark specimens have even been found to contain an entire reindeer and parts of a horse. The shark is also known to feed off carrion and is attracted to ill-smelling meat. They often congregate in large numbers around fishing operations .
The Greenland shark is an ovoviviparous species. The female carries a large number of soft-shelled eggs eventually giving birth to full-term embryos. Some eggs have been reported to be as large as goose eggs. One 16 feet (5 m ) specimen was reported to have contained ten 15 inches (38 cm) long full-term embryos in one of its uteri.
: There are no known natural predators of the mature
, which is most likely due to its massive size.
Parasites: A common parasite of the Greenland shark is Ommatokoita elongata. This copepod attaches itself to the eyes of the shark causing corneal lesions which lead to impaired vision and even partial blindness. However, this does not significantly affect the shark since it does not rely on keen vision. On most Greenland shark specimens, usually only one eye is affected by a single female copepod. Some believe that the copepod is bioluminescent, attracting prey for the shark. However, there is no scientific evidence that supports this theory.
- Phylum: Chordata () - Chordates
Leiodon echinatum Wood • Scymnus glacialis Faber • Scymnus gunneri Thienemann • Scymnus micropterus Valenciennes • Somniosus antarcticus Whitley • Somniosus brevipinna Lesueur • Squalus borealis Scoresby • Squalus carcharis Gunnerus • Squalus microcephalus Bloch & Schneider • Squalus norvegianus Blainville • Squalus squatina (Non Linnaeus
Status: Accepted Name
First described: Bloch, M .E. and J.G. Schneider M.E. Blochii, systema ichthyologiae iconibus cx illustratum. Post obitum auctoris opus inchoatum absolvit, correxit, interpolavit Jo. Gottlob Schneider, Saxo. Berolini, Sumtibus Austoris Impressum et Bibliopolio Sanderiano Commissum: Berlin. 584 p., 1801.
Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 27-Oct-2000
Yano et al. (2004) confirm that sleeper sharks found in the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean are a separate species, Somniosus antarcticus Whitley, 1939..
Members of the genus Somniosus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species and subspecies in this genus:
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 02, 2008:
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Fish Collection
- FishBase: FishBase DiGIR Provider - Philippine Server
- GBIF-Sweden: Fishes (NRM)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Atlantic Reference Centre (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Bay of Fundy Species List (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Canadian Museum of Nature - Fish Collection (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: iziko South African Museum - Shark Collection
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: South Western Pacific Regional OBIS Data provider for the NIWA Marine Biodata Information System
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Taxonomic Information Sytem for the Belgian coastal area
- Museum national d'histoire naturelle: Ichtyologie
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University: MCZ Fish Collection
- Senckenberg: Collection Pisces
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3865062
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-22831
- Fishbase Species ID: 138
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13775411
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 160611
- IUCN ID: 242844
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 125196
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