Family : Sleeper sharks ; Found on continental and insular shelves and upper slopes down to at least 1,200 m . In the Arctic and boreal Atlantic, it occurs inshore in the intertidal and at the surface in shallow bays and river mouths during colder months, retreating to depths of 180-550 m when the temperature rises . Feeds on pelagic and bottom fish , sharks and skates , seals and small cetaceans , sea birds, squids , crabs, amphipods , marine snails, brittle stars, sea urchins, and jellyfish . Also utilized fresh and dried for human and sled-dog food (flesh is said to be toxic when fresh); eskimos also used the skin to make boots , and the sharp lower dental bands as knives for cutting hair (Ref. 247). A very sluggish shark .
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Danish:
Almindelig Havkal, Gr, Grønlandshaj, Havhaj, Havkal, Ishaj
Common Names in Dutch:
Groenlandse Haai, Ijshaai
Common Names in English:
Gray Shark, Greenland Shark, Greenland Sleeper Shark, Ground Shark, Gurry Shark, Large Sleeper Shark, Oakettle, Sleeper, Sleeper Shark
Common Names in Faroese:
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Laimargue Du Groenland, Apocalle, Laimargue, Laimargue Atlantique, Requin Du Groenland
Common Names in German:
Eishai, Gr, Gröndlandhai, Grönlandhai, Grundforelle, Grundhai
Common Names in Greenlandic:
Common Names in Icelandic:
Common Names in Inuktitut:
Ekaludjuag, Ekalugss, Ekalugssuak, Ekalugssûp Piarâ, Ekalugss˚p Piarâ, Ekalukjuak, Eqaludjuaq, Eqalugssuaq, Eqalukjuag, Eqaluksuaq, Eqalukuak, Eqalusuaq, Iqalugjuaq, Iqalujjuaq, Iqalukuak
Common Names in Italian:
Lemargo, Squalo Di Groenlandia, Squalo Di Groenlandia Lemargo
Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Lobo, Tubar, Tubarao Da Gronel, Tubarao Da Gronelândia, Tubarao De Gronel, Tubarao De Gronelândia, Tubarão-Da-Noite
Common Names in Rumanian:
Rechin De Groelanda
Common Names in Russian:
Акула полярная атлантическая
Common Names in Spanish:
Tibur?n Boreal, Tibur, Tiburón Boreal, Tollo Boreal, Tollo De Cachos, Tollo De Groenlandia
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Turkish:
Species Somniosus microcephalus
Distinctive Features: The Greenland shark
is characterized by its
large, heavy-set body which gives it a sluggish appearance
It has a short, rounded
snout, thin lips
, and very small eyes. The
dorsal and pectoral fins are very small, and it lacks spines in its
dorsal fins. The gill openings are very small in comparison to its
size and are located low on the sides of the shark's head
Coloration : The Greenland shark varies between a black, brown, and grey color. Although the shark is usually uniform in color, it may often be marked with dark lines or white spots along its back and sides.
Dentition: The teeth of the Greenland shark are very different in comparison of the top and bottom sets . The upper teeth are very thin and pointy and lack serrations . They range in number from 48 to 52. The lower teeth are interlocking and are broad and square , containing short, smooth cusps that point outward. The lower teeth range in number from 50 to 52.
Denticles : The denticles of the Greenland shark are uniform in characteristics over the entire body of the shark. They are cone shaped and curved towards the rear of the shark. They are in longitudal columns and are closely spaced. They have high axial crests and low lateral crests, and the bases of the denticles have four sides.
Size, Age, and Growth: Greenland sharks average in size from 8-14 feet (244 to 427 cm) with females being the larger sex. This shark reaches a maximum length of about 21 feet (640 cm); although, it may grow to 24 feet (730 cm). Growth of the shark is very slow due to the cold temperatures of its climate.
The Greenland shark ranges in depths of 0-3,937 feet (0 to 1,200 m ) and temperatures of 34-68°F (1 to 12°C). In the north, the shark migrates near shore in search of warmer waters. It is usually spotted near the surface during the winter and retreats to depths of 591-1,804 feet (180 to 550 m) during the summer. In southern waters the shark is found near continental shelves and slopes and is found at a depth of about 3,937 feet (1,200 m). In 1988, an unmanned submarine spotted a 20 feet (6 m) long male Greenland shark at a depth of 7,218 feet (2,200 m) at the wreck of the SS Central America, which sank off the coast of Savannah, Georgia in 1857. This is 3,281 feet (1,000 m) deeper than the maximum reported depth of the shark and 273 miles (440 km ) south of its southernmost sighting in North Carolina.
Biome: Marine .
, ranging from river mouths
shelf and slope waters
. Usually found in depths of 0 to 1,200 m
but one shark
was observed at 2,200 m off North Carolina (Herdendorf
and Berra 1995, Compagno in prep. a). During winter months in the
and boreal Atlantic, the species occurs in the intertidal
zone and at the surface in shallow bays and river mouths, moving
into depths of 180 to 550 m during warmer months. At lower latitudes
of Maine and North Sea
) the species occurs on the continental
shelves with possible movements into shallower water during spring
and summer (Compagno in prep. a). Short term
tracking studies of
the Greenland sharks
under ice off Baffin Island during late Spring
suggest that individuals remained at deeper depths during the morning,
gradually moving into shallower depths in the afternoon and at night
(Skomal and Benz 2004). The species has been recorded in water temperatures
of 0.6 to 12°C (Compagno in prep. a).
Maximum size is uncertain, but is at least 640 cm TL , possibly to 730 cm TL, however most adults are between 244 and 427 cm TL (Compagno in prep. a). Aplacental viviparous with one observed female carrying 10 young (Compagno in prep. a). Tagging studies have shown the species to be very slow growing with medium size sharks appearing to grow at a rate of 1 cm per year (Hansen 1957, Castro 1983, Castro et al. 1999).
Although reportedly sluggish, feeds on a variety of prey including invertebrates , fish, seabirds, seals as well as offal (see Compagno in prep. a for more details).
Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (total length cm): Unknown.
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): 640?730 cm TL.
Size at birth: ~37 to 38 cm TL (Bjerkan and Koefoed 1957, Compagno in prep. a).
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size : 10.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown..
List of Habitats :
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.1 Marine Neritic - Pelagic
- 10 Marine Oceanic
- 10.1 Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m) [more info]
The Greenland shark's most common food consists of a large variety of ocean dwellers such as other small sharks , skates , eels, herring , capelin, char, various gadoids, redfish, sculpins , lumpfish, wolfish, and flounders . Marine mammals, such as seals and porpoises , are often taken by Greenland sharks despite it being characterized as a very sluggish creature. A few Greenland shark specimens have even been found to contain an entire reindeer and parts of a horse. The shark is also known to feed off carrion and is attracted to ill-smelling meat. They often congregate in large numbers around fishing operations .
The Greenland shark is an ovoviviparous species. The female carries a large number of soft-shelled eggs eventually giving birth to full-term embryos. Some eggs have been reported to be as large as goose eggs. One 16 feet (5 m ) specimen was reported to have contained ten 15 inches (38 cm) long full-term embryos in one of its uteri.
: There are no known natural predators of the mature
, which is most likely due to its massive size.
Parasites: A common parasite of the Greenland shark is Ommatokoita elongata. This copepod attaches itself to the eyes of the shark causing corneal lesions which lead to impaired vision and even partial blindness. However, this does not significantly affect the shark since it does not rely on keen vision. On most Greenland shark specimens, usually only one eye is affected by a single female copepod. Some believe that the copepod is bioluminescent, attracting prey for the shark. However, there is no scientific evidence that supports this theory.
- Kingdom: Animalia () - Animals
Leiodon echinatum Wood • Scymnus glacialis Faber • Scymnus gunneri Thienemann • Scymnus micropterus Valenciennes • Somniosus antarcticus Whitley • Somniosus brevipinna Lesueur • Squalus borealis Scoresby • Squalus carcharis Gunnerus • Squalus microcephalus Bloch & Schneider • Squalus norvegianus Blainville • Squalus squatina (Non Linnaeus
Status: Accepted Name
First described: Bloch, M .E. and J.G. Schneider M.E. Blochii, systema ichthyologiae iconibus cx illustratum. Post obitum auctoris opus inchoatum absolvit, correxit, interpolavit Jo. Gottlob Schneider, Saxo. Berolini, Sumtibus Austoris Impressum et Bibliopolio Sanderiano Commissum: Berlin. 584 p., 1801.
Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 27-Oct-2000
Yano et al. (2004) confirm that sleeper sharks found in the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean are a separate species, Somniosus antarcticus Whitley, 1939..
Members of the genus Somniosus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species and subspecies in this genus:
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A bibliography of fishes, New York, American Museum of Natural History, 1916-1923. url .
- A bibliography of fishes, by Bashford Dean. .. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1916-1923. url p. 665, p. 665.
- A checklist of Canadian Atlantic fishes with keys for identification / Toronto, Royal Ontario Museum, 1965 url , p. 24, p. 5.
- A guide to the study of fishes, New York, H. Holt, 1905. url .
- A guide to the study of fishes, by David Starr Jordan. .. New York, H. Holt and Company, 1905. url p. 547.
- A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Report presented at the eighty-ninth annual meeting, Clearwater, Fla., Sept. 16-18, 1959. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1960. url p. 8.
- A manual of the vertebrate animals of the northern United States: including the district north and east of the Ozark mountains, south of the Laurentian hills, north of the southern boundary of Virginia, and east of the Missouri river, inclusive of marine species / Chicago:A. C. McClurg, 1916. url .
- An annotated catalogue of the fishes of Maine. Portland, Me., 1914. url p. 122, p. 123.
- An annotated list of Puget Sound fishes, Olympia [Wash.]State printer, 1919. url .
- An ecological characterization of Coastal Maine (north and east of Cape Elizabeth) / Stewart I. Fefer and Patricia S. Schettig: principal investigators. Newton Corner, Mass.: Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Region, 1980. url .
- Anatomischer Anzeiger. Jena: G. Fischer, 1886- url p. 156, p. 300.
- Animals before man in North America: their lives and times / by Frederic A. Lucas. New York: D. Appleton and company, 1902. url p. 104.
- Annals of the Carnegie Museum. [Pittsburgh]: Published by authority of the Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Institute, 1901- url p. 486.
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. New York, New York Academy of Sciences. url p. 351.
- Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, -1965. url p. 106, p. 232, p. 261, p. 628, p. 97, p. 97.
- Bering's voyages: an account of the efforts of the Russians to determine the relation of Asia and America / by F. A. Golder. New York: American Geographical Society, 1922-25. url p. 140, p. 286.
- Biology of the seas of the U.S.S.R. Translated by S. Botcharskaya. New York, Interscience Publishers url p. 159, p. 925.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 254, p. 276, p. 42, p. 57, p. 57.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: BM(NH) url p. 177, p. 237.
- Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries. Washington, D.C.: Govt. Print. Off., 1905-1950. url p. 2, p. 53, p. 551.
- Bulletin of the Essex Institute. Salem, Mass., Essex Institute. url p. 31, p. 33.
- Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. 117 1957 Cambridge, Mass.: The Museum, 1863- url descr. of plate 3 , p. 19, p. 6.
- Bulletin. Salem, Mass. url p. 31, p. 33, p. 35, p. 38.
- California fish and game. [San Francisco, etc.]: State of California, Resources Agency, Dept. of Fish and Game. url p. 118, p. 23, p. 254, p. 297.
- Carnegie Institution of Washington publication. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902- url p. 162.
- Catalogue of the collection to illustrate the animal resources and the fisheries of the United States, exhibited at Philadelphia in 1876 by the Smithsonian Institution and the United States Fish Commission, and forming a part of the United States National Museum. Washington: Govt. Print. Off., 1879. url p. 338.
- Check list of the fishes of the Dominion of Canada and Newfoundland. Ottawa, Printed by C. H. Parmelee, 1913. url , , .
- Chimæeroid fishes and their development / by Bashford Dean. Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1906. url p. 162.
- Chimæroid fishes and their development / by Bashford Dean. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1906. url p. 162, p. 21.
- Contributions to Canadian biology. Toronto, Biological Board of Canada. url p. 56.
- Contributions to North American ichthyology. Based primarily on the collections of the United States National Museum. Washington: Govt. print. off., 1877-78. url p. 338, p. 69.
- Contributions to biology from the Hopkins Seaside Laboratory of the Leland Stanford Jr. University. Stanford University, Calif.: The University, 1895-1904. url p. 788.
- Crustacea Malacostraca. Tr. by H.M. Kyle. Copenhagen, Printed by Bianco Luno, 1908-20. url p. 171.
- Dangerous marine animals. Cambridge, Md., Cornell Maritime Press, 1959. url p. 109.
- Dean bibliography of fishes. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1971-1973. url p. 116, p. 13, p. 289, p. 332, p. 534, p. 634, p. 643, p. 645.
- Fauna of New England, 8. List of the pisces, by William C. Kendall. Boston, Printed for the [Boston] Society [of Natural History] from the G. Saltonstall Fund, 1908. url , p. 9.
- Field book of giant fishes, by J. R. Norman and F. C. Fraser. With 8 plates in full color and over 100 drawings by W. P. C. Tenison. New York, G. P. Putnam url figs. 22-23 , p. 358, p. 52, illustrations, page vi.
- Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan: including Riukiu Islands, Bonin Islands, Formosa, Kurile Islands, Korea, and southern Sakhalin / by Shigeo Tanaka. Tokyo: [Tokyo Printing Co.], 1911- url p. 44.
- Fishery bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service: url p. 408.
- Fishery bulletin. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, The Service, U.S. Govt Print. Off. url p. 53, p. 54, p. 576.
- Fishes of the Gulf of Maine, by Henry B. Bigelow and William C. Schroeder. Washington, United States Government Printing Office, 1953. url , p. 323, p. 53, p. 54, p. 576.
- Fishes of the Gulf of Maine. By Henry B. Bigelow. .. and William W. Welsh. .. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1925. url p. 551.
- Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Editorial board: editor-in-chief John Tee-Van [and others] New Haven, Sears Foundation for Marine Research, Yale Univ., 1948- url p. 628.
- Fishes, New York, H. Holt and Company, 1907. url .
- Guide to marine fishes; [a new method for identification of marine fishes. New York]New York University Press url p. 231, p. 251, p. 430.
- Journal of ethnobiology. 15 1995 Flagstaff, Ariz.: Center for Western Studies, 1981- url p. 42.
- Keys to the fishes of Washington, Oregon and closely adjoining regions, by Leonard P. Schultz. Seattle, Wash., University of Washington Press, 1936. url p. 227.
- Leeches (Hirudinea) their structure, physiology, ecology and embryology / by K.H. Mann. With an appendix on the systematics of marine leeches, by E. W. Knight-Jones. New York, Pergamon Press, 1962. url p. 177, p. 182.
- Mammals of the Soviet Union / V.G. Heptner, A.A. Nasimovich, and A.G. Bannikov; scientific editor, Robert S. Hoffmann. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, 1988- url p. 253, p. 422.
- Manual of the natural history, geology and physics of Greenland and the neighbouring regions / prepared for the use of the Arctic expedition of 1875, under the direction of the Arctic Committee of the London: Printed for H.M.S.O., 1875. url , , , , .
- Manual of the vertebrate animals of the northern U.S.. .. inclusive of the marine species. Chicago, McClurg, 1894, c1876-88. url .
- Meddelelser om Grønland. København, C. A. Reitzels Forlag, 1879-1979. url , p. 1143, p. 1146, p. 115, p. 216, p. 221, p. 222, p. 232, p. 233, p. 276, p. 518, p. 58, p. 67.
- Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy, at Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. Cambridge [Mass.]: The Museum, 1876-1940. url , p. 240, p. 241, p. 242, p. 484, p. 9.
- Monogenetic trematodes: their systematics and phylogeny / by Boris E. Bychowsky; edited by William J. Hargis, Jr.; translated by Pierre C. Oustinoff. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Biological Sciences, c1961. url p. 5, p. 627.
- Monographs on the Isopods of North America / by Harriet Richards. Washington: Govt. print. off., 1905. url p. 169, p. 182, p. 726.
- Occasional papers of the Boston Society of Natural History. Boston, Boston Society of Natural History, 1869-1941. url .
- Oceanic ichthyology: a treatise on the deep-sea and pelagic fishes of the world, based chiefly upon the collections made by the steamers "Blake, " "Albatross, " and "Fishhawk" in the northwestern Atlantic, with an atlas con by George Brown Goode and Tarleton H. Bean. Pub. in connection with the National Museum and the Smithsonian institution. 22 1896 Cambridge, U.S.A.: Printed for the Museum, 1896. url list: plates/figs., p. 1*-26*, page 1*, list: plates/figs., p. 1*-26*, page 1*.
- Oceanus. Woods Hole, Mass., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution url p. 10.
- On the appendices genitales in the Greenland shark, Somniosus microcephalus (Bl. Schn.), and other selachians / by Hector F. E. Jungersen; translated by Torben Lundbeck. Copenhagen: Bianco Luno (F. Dreyer), Printer to the Court, 1899. url , , p. 19, p. 85.
- Pamphlets on forestry. Fish and game. [1900?- url p. 616.
- Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia url , p. 264, p. 264.
- Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, 1979- url p. 105, p. 328.
- Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. London, Published for the Linnean Society of London by Academic Press [etc.], 1848-1968. url p. 103.
- Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 6 1883 Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.] url p. 125, p. 267, p. 269, p. 272, p. 525, p. 638.
- Report of the Bureau of Fisheries / Department of Commerce and Labor. Washington: G.P.O., 1905. url p. 172, p. 172.
- Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913-18. Ottawa, F. A. Acland, Printer to the King, 1919- url , , .
- Report of the Commissioner for. .. / United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Washington: G.P.O., 1874-1905. url p. 219, p. 219, p. 736, p. 793, p. 979.
- Report of the United States Commissioner of Fisheries for the fiscal year. .. with appendixes Washington: G.P.O., 1914- url p. 22.
- Reports. OttawaKing's Printer1917 url p. 12, p. 16.
- Seal and salmon fisheries and general resources of Alaska. Washington: Govt. Printing Office, 1898. url p. 370.
- Shadows in the sea: the sharks, skates and rays [by] Harold W. McCormick and Tom Allen, with William E. Young. Philadelphia, Chilton Books url figure , p. 355, p. 412.
- Smithsonian contributions to knowledge. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1848-1916. url p. 31.
- Smithsonian miscellaneous collections. 22 1882 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1862-1968. url p. 267, p. 269, p. 272, p. 355, p. 673.
- Special bulletin / Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1892- url appendix , p. 507-537 , p. 1*-26* , list of plates , p. 1*, p. 507.
- Syllogeus. Ottawa, National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1972-1995. url p. 27.
- Synopsis of the fishes of North America. By David S. Jordan and Charles H. Gilbert. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1882. url p. 57.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 54.
- The Biological bulletin. Woods Hole, Mass.: Marine Biological Laboratory, url p. 248.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url , p. 195, p. 236, p. 355, p. 370, p. 443, p. 542, p. 607, p. 630, p. 642, p. 693, p. 695, p. 708.
- The Canadian naturalist and geologist. Montreal: B. Dawson, 1856-1868. url p. 264.
- The Canadian record of science. Montreal, Natural History Society. url p. 304.
- The Danish Ingolf-Expedition. Copenhagen: H. Hagerup, 1899-1953. url , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .
- The Danish Ingolf-expedition. CopenhagenH. Hagerup1899-1953 url p. 1.
- The Labrador coast. A journal of two summer cruises to that region. New York: N.D.C. Hodges, 1891. url .
- The Labrador coast. New York, N. D. C. Hodges: [etc., etc.]1891. url p. 397.
- The Plagiostomia: Sharks, skates, and rays / by Samuel Garman; with seventy-seven plates. 36 1913 Cambridge, U.S.A.: Printed for the Museum, 1913. url p. 242, p. ix.
- The Trematoda of British fishes. London, Sold by B. Quaritch, 1947. url p. 340.
- The days of a man, being memories of a naturalist, teacher, and minor prophet of democracy. Yonkers-on-Hudson, N.Y., World book co., 1922. url p. 137.
- The days of a man: being memories of a naturalist, teacher, and minor prophet of democracy / Yonkers-on-Hudson, N. Y.: World Book Co., 1922. url .
- The fisheries and fishery industries of the United States. Prepared through the co-operation of the commissioner of fisheries and the superintendent of the tenth census by George Brown Goode. .. and a staff of associates. .. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1884-87. url p. 676.
- The fishes found in the vicinity of Woods Hole. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1898. url p. 111.
- The fishes of Puget sound, by David Starr Jordan and Edwin Chapin Starks. Palo Alto, Cal., Leland Stanford Junior University, 1895. url p. 788.
- The fur seals and fur-seal islands of the North Pacific ocean. Washington, Govt. Print. Off.1898-99. url .
- The ichthyological results / by Chr. Lütken. Copenhagen: Bianco Luno (F. Dreyer), Printer to the Court, 1898. url .
- The lipids, their chemistry and biochemistry. New York, Interscience Publishers, 1951-57. url p. 870.
- The naturalist of the Saint Croix. Memoir of George A. Boardman. A selection from his correspondence and published writings, notices of friends and contemporaries, with his list of the birds of Maine and New Brunswick. By Samuel Lane Boardman... Bangor: Priv. print, 1903. url p. 319.
- The selachians of Greenland / by Ad. S. Jensen. København: B. Lunos bogtrykkeri, 1914. url p. 16.
- Trematodes of the Pacific Northwest, an annotated catalog [by] Ivan Pratt [and] James E. McCauley. Corvallis, Oregon State University Press url p. 112, p. 9.
- Zoogeographical investigation of certain fjords in southern Greenland, with special reference to Crustacea, Pycnogonida and Echinodermata including a list of Alcyonaria and Pisces, København, s.n., 1916. url p. 323.
- American Fisheries Society. Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United states, Canada, and Mexico Sixth Edition. Special Publication 29.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Compagno, Leonard J.V. (from FishBase).
- Dane Eagle. Florida Museum of Natural History
- FishBase. Release date: January 5, 2010
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 02, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 7 providers.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Kyne, P.M., Sherrill-Mix, S.A. & Burgess, G.H. 2006. Somniosus microcephalus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 04February2012.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 02, 2008:
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Fish Collection
- FishBase: FishBase DiGIR Provider - Philippine Server
- GBIF-Sweden: Fishes (NRM)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Atlantic Reference Centre (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Bay of Fundy Species List (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Canadian Museum of Nature - Fish Collection (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: iziko South African Museum - Shark Collection
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: South Western Pacific Regional OBIS Data provider for the NIWA Marine Biodata Information System
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Taxonomic Information Sytem for the Belgian coastal area
- Museum national d'histoire naturelle: Ichtyologie
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University: MCZ Fish Collection
- Senckenberg: Collection Pisces
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3865062
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-22831
- Fishbase Species ID: 138
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13775411
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 160611
- IUCN ID: 242844
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 125196
- Compagno, L.J.V. (1984). FAO species catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. (125, Vol. 4, Part 1), 249 p. [back]
- Compagno, L.J.V., D.A. Ebert and M.J. Smale (1989). Guide to the sharks and rays of southern Africa. New Holland (Publ.) Ltd., London. 158 p. [back]
- Jordan, D.S. and E.C. Starks (1895). The fishes of Puget Sound. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 5:785-855. [back]
- Kyne, P.M., Sherrill-Mix, S.A. & Burgess, G.H. 2006. Somniosus microcephalus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 February 2012. [back]