Mammal. Imported as a pet from North America to UK, Italy, and South Africa. In UK and Italy its introduction led to the local extinction of the native red squirrel. A further expansion from the Alps to a large portion of Eurasia is predicted.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
eastern gray squirrel, Eastern Grey Squirrel, gray squirrel, Grey Squirrel
Common Names in French:
Ã©cureuil gris, écureuil gris
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Italian:
Species Sciurus carolinensis
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,911 meters (0 to 9,551 feet).
It is found in large blocks
or mixed forests
, as well
as in urban and suburban areas. Prefers mature
deciduous and mixed
forests with abundant supplies of mast (e.g.
, hickory nuts).
of nut trees is needed to support
high densities. Also
uses city parks and floodplains
. Seldom far from permanent open water
In southern Alabama, narrow bands
of hardwoods along ephemeral
were an important component
of the habitat
in even-aged pine and
mixed pine-hardwood stands. Rests in tree
or leaf nest
nests apparently are made primarily by dispersing juveniles
weeks old. Nests in tree cavities or in leaf nests, usually 25 feet
or more above the ground
. Most winter-spring litters
are born in
tree cavities, most spring-summer litters in leaf nests (Teaford
1986). Cavities suitable for nesting are dry, 15-25 cm in diametre,
40-50 cm deep, with an entrance hole
about eight cm in diameter (Teaford
1986). Females may move young from tree cavity nest to leaf nest,
possibly to escape
In Illinois, most breeding occurs in December-February and May-June; slightly later in more northern latitudes (see Koprowski 1994). One or two litters per year. First litter is produced mostly in February-March, sometimes as early as January in some areas; second litter, July or August. Gestation lasts 44 days. Litter size most often is 2-3. Young are tended by female. Weaning is completed at about 10-12 weeks (in spring and/or late summer-early fall ). Most breed as yearlings , sometimes sooner (as early as five months) or later. Reproductive output, including the percentage of adults that produce young and the number of litters per year, is positively correlated with mast abundance . Maximum reproductive longevity is about a decade.
Home range averages 0.5-10 ha, with older males tending to have the largest ranges (Teaford 1986); usually home range is less than five hectares (see Koprowski 1994). Not territorial , home range overlap is extensive; social system is characterized by a linear dominance hierarchy. Disperses up to a few kilometres from natal area upon approaching sexual maturity. Large-scale one-way emigrations have been observed, generally coinciding with high population density and mast crop failure.
Taken by many predators , but predation does not appear to limit populations (Teaford 1986). Mean annual mortality reported for adults is 42-57% (Koprowski 1994). Diet consists of seeds, fruits, nuts, fungi, occasional insects and small vertebrates (e.g., bird eggs ). Scatterhoarder; buries nuts and acorn in fall for later consumption (winter-spring). Active during the day, particularly in the morning and late afternoon, though unimodal activity may occur in winter. May be inactive for a day or two during extremely cold, snowy weather..
List of Habitats:
- 1 Forest
- 1.4 Forest - Temperate
- 14 Artificial/Terrestrial
- 14.3 Artificial/Terrestrial - Plantations
- 14.4 Artificial/Terrestrial - Rural Gardens [more info]
The Gray Squirrel prefers hardwood forests of the Piedmont Region, mountains, and river and stream floodplains where an abundant supply of nuts, acorns , fruits, and flowers can be found. It will also eat insects and occasionally bird eggs .
Placental , sexual. 2-3 young per litter , 1-2 litters per year
The Gray Squirrel constructs two types of nests . One is in a tree cavity , and is used for rearing young and for winter shelter . The other type of nest, which looks like a ball of dry leaves and twigs lined with plant fibers, is lodged in the upper branches of a tree. It is used as temporary shelter in both summer and winter. Main predators of the Gray Squirrel include hawks, owls, the Coyote, foxes, the Bobcat, and occasionally weasels, raccoons, and snakes . Wild individuals have an average life expectancy of 5 years.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- (Szalay & McKenna, 1971) McKenna, 1975
- (Weber, 1904) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Bowdich, 1821
- Brandt, 1855
- Infraorder: Sciurida () - (Carus, 1868) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Suborder: Sciuromorpha () - Brandt, 1855
- Order: Rodentia () - Bowdich, 1821 - Rodents
- Mirorder: Simplicidentata () - (Weber, 1904) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Grandorder: Anagalida () - (Szalay & McKenna, 1971) McKenna, 1975
- Superorder: Preptotheria () - (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- Magnorder: Epitheria () - (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- Cohort: Placentalia () - (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Supercohort: Theria () - (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Infralegion: Tribosphenida () - (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Sublegion: Zatheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Legion: Cladotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Superlegion: Trechnotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Infraclass: Holotheria () - (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Subclass: Theriiformes () - (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Class: Mammalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 08-Jun-2004
The Gray Squirrel is readily distinguished from the Fox Squirrel by its smaller size, uniform gray color, and white belly.
Members of the genus Sciurus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 41 species and subspecies in this genus:
S. aberti (Tassle-Eared Squirrel) · S. aberti kaibabensis (Kaibab Squirrel) · S. aberti mimus (Abert's Squirrel) · S. aberti subsp. aberti (Abert's Squirrel) · S. aestuans (Guianan Squirrel) · S. alleni (Allen's Squirrel) · S. anomalus (Caucasian Squirrel) · S. arizonensis (Arizona Gray Squirrel) · S. arizonensis arizonensis (Arizona Gray Squirrel) · S. aureogaster (Bushy-Tailed Olingo) · S. aureogaster aureogaster (Mexican Gray Squirrel) · S. carolinensis (Eastern Grey Squirrel) · S. colliaei (Collie's Squirrel) · S. deppei (Deppe's Squirrel) · S. flammifer (Venezuelan Squirrel) · S. gilvigularis (Yellow-Throated Squirrel) · S. granatensis (Red-Tailed Squirrel) · S. griseus (Western Gray Squirrel) · S. griseus griseus (Western Gray Squirrel) · S. ignitus (Bolivian Squirrel) · S. igniventris (Northern Amazon Red Squirrel) · S. lis (Japanese Squirrel) · S. nayaritensis (Mexican Fox Squirrel) · S. nayaritensis chiricahuae (Chiricahua Squirrel) · S. niger (Bryant's Fox Squirrel) · S. niger avicennia (Big Cypress Fox Squirrel) · S. niger cinereus (Bryant's Fox Squirrel) · S. niger niger (Fox Squirrel) · S. niger shermani (Sherman's Fox Squirrel) · S. niger vulpinus (Eastern Fox Squirrel) · S. oculatus (Peters's Squirrel) · S. pucheranii (Colombian Squirrel) · S. pyrrhinus (Jun?n Red Squirrel) · S. richmondi (Richmond's Squirrel) · S. sanborni (Sanborn's Squirrel) · S. spadiceus (Southern Amazon Red Squirrel) · S. stramineus (Guayaquil Squirrel) · S. variegatoides (Variegated Squirrel) · S. vulgaris (Eurasian Red Squirrel) · S. vulgaris russus (Eurasian Red Squirrel) · S. yucatanensis (Yucatan Squirrel)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 11, 2008:
- BeBIF Provider: African Rodentia
- Borror Laboratory of Bioacoustics
- Burke Museum: Mammal Specimens
- Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates: Mammal Collection
- European Environment Agency: EUNIS
- Field Museum: Mammal specimens
- Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History: Vertebrate specimens
- Louisiana State University Museum of Natural Science: Mammal specimens
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB: Paleobiology Database
- Michigan State University Museum: Vertebrate specimens
- Museum of Texas Tech University (TTU): Mammal specimens
- Museum of Vertebrate Zoology: Terrestrial vertebrate specimens
- OZCAM (Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums) Provider: Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums
- Royal Ontario Museum: Mammal specimens
- Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History: Santa Barbara Musem of Natural History
- Sternberg Museum of Natural History: Mammal Collection
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Biological Records Centre - Mammal records from Britain from the Atlas of Mammals (1993), with some subsequent records
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Highland Biological Recording Group - HBRG Mammals dataset.
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Lothian Wildlife Information Centre - Lothian Wildlife Information Centre Secret Garden Survey
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Scottish Borders Biological Records Centre - SWT Scottish Borders Local Wildlife Site Survey data 1996-2000 - species information
- UK National Biodiversity Network: The Bat Conservation Trust - The BCT/MTUK Bats & Roadside Mammals Survey
- University of Alaska Museum of the North: MSB Mammals Specimens
- University of Alaska Museum of the North: UAM Mammals Specimens
- University of Minnesota Bell Museum of Natural History: Mammal specimens
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 109358
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-180175
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 1428686
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 180175
- IUCN ID: 241415
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: AMAFB07010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1034
- Mean = 28.570 meters (93.734 feet), Standard Deviation = 43.850 based on 114,222 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Linzey, A.V., Koprowski, J. & Hammerson, G. 2008. Sciurus carolinensis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 February 2012. [back]