'The Nymphalidae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Distributed worldwide, butterflies of this family
are especially rich in the tropics. They are highly variable, and there are more species in this family than in any other. Adults
vary in size from small to large, and their front legs
are reduced, unable to be used for walking. Wing
is also highly variable: some species have irregular margins
(anglewings and commas), and others have long taillike projections (daggerwings). Browns, oranges, yellows, and blacks are frequent colors, while iridescent
colors such as purples and blues are rare. Adults of some groups are the longest-lived butterflies, surviving 6-11 months. Adult feeding behavior depends on the species, where some groups primarily seek flower nectar while others only feed
, rotting fruit, dung, or animal carcasses. Males exhibit
behaviors when seeking mates. Egg-laying
varies widely, as some species lay eggs
in clustsers, others in columns, and others singly. Caterpillar appearance
and behavior vary widely. Brushfoots overwinter
as larvae or adults.
Brushfoots are the most prevalent members of the Family Nymphalinae. Distributed worldwide, this is a diverse group that contains several tribes , each with somewhat different structural and biological features. Adults of North American species are predominantly orange, brown, and black. Wing shape and mating systems are variable. Most checkerspots and crescentspots patrol for mates, while the remainder of groups exhibit either perching or perching and patrolling . Migration varies widely; some strong migrants are found in the lady butterflies, tortoiseshells, and anglewings, while other species are local in occurrence. Most species limit their host plants to a few species, but the Painted Lady has one of the widest host palettes of all butterflies. Eggs are laid singly or clustered in groups, and caterpillars be found feeding alone or communally. Brushfoots overwinter as young caterpillars or hibernating adults.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Order: Lepidoptera () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Superorder: Panorpida ()
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Class: Insecta () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Insects
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Members of the genus Salamis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species and subspecies in this genus:
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- A hand-book to the order Lepidoptera. By W.F. Kirby. .. London, E. Lloyd, limited, 1896-1897. url p. 103.
- A handbook to the order Lepidoptera. By W. F. Kirby. London, E. Lloyd, limited, 1896-1897. url p. 103.
- A naturalist in the Transvaal / by W.L. Distant. London: R.H. Porter, 1892. url p. 123, p. 233, p. 274.
- A naturalist in the Transvaal. By W.L. Distant. .. London, R.H. Porter, 1892. url p. 123, p. 233, p. 274.
- Annual report / Albany: University of the State of New York, 1902-1918. url p. 69.
- Elephant-hunting in east equatorial Africa; being an account of three years' ivory-hunting under Mount Kenia and among the Ndorobo savages of the Lorogi Mountains, including a trip to the north end of Lake Rudolph, by Arthur H. Neumann; with numerous illustrations by J.G. Millais, E. Caldwell and G.E. Lodge; coloured plate and map. London: R. Ward, limited, 1898. url p. 441.
- Insecta transvaaliensia; a contribution to the entomology of South Africa, by W.L. Distant, in collaboration with Chr. Aurivillius, Malcolm Burr, C.J. Gahan, Karl Jordan, and W.F. Kirby. 27 platesand 59 text-figures. London: F. Edwards [etc.], 1924. url p. 62.
- International catalogue of scientific literature. LondonPublished for the International Council by the Royal Society of London1901-1920 url p. 287.
- Museum bulletin / New York State Museum. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1908-1916. url p. 69.
- On a collection of Sierra Leone lepidoptera / London: R. H. Porter, 1893 url p. 4.
- Proceedings of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London [Eng]: South London Entomological and Natural history Society, [1897-1933] url p. 52.
- Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 18 1895 Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.] url p. 741, p. 751.
- The Entomologist's monthly magazine. Oxford [etc.]Entomologist's Monthly Magazine Ltd. [etc.] url p. 139, p. 72.
- The Entomologist's record and journal of variation. s.l., s.n. url p. 258, p. 262.
- The Entomologist. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., [1877- url , , , p. 134, p. 160, p. 229, p. 229, p. 311, p. 32, p. 32, p. 411.
- The Hope reports. Oxford: Printed for private circulation, 1897-1958. url p. 114, p. 17, p. 318, p. 321, p. 325, p. 329, p. 4, p. 638.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society of London. London: Academic Press [etc.], 1865-1968. url p. 238, p. 268, p. 275, p. 276, p. 295, p. 296, p. 302, p. 305, p. 306.
- The standard natural history / edited by John Sterling Kingsley. Boston: S.E. Cassino, 1884-85. url p. 484.
- The standard natural history. Boston, S. E. Cassino and Company, 1884-85. url .
- The standard natural history. Ed. by John Sterling Kingsley. Boston, S.E. Cassino and company, 1884-85. url p. 484.
- The story of the rear column of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition, New York, United States Books Co. url p. 434, p. 434.
- Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. London, The Society. url , , p. 114, p. 140, p. 188, p. 24, p. 317, p. 321, p. 329, p. 4, p. 428, p. 55, p. 638.
- Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. [London]: Published for the Zoological Society of London by Academic Press url p. 141.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 31, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 26, 2008:
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS: Entomological Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2958244
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Lep-158651.0
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1565592