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Rhinobatos rhinobatos

(common mediterranean guitarfish)


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Family : Guitarfishes ; Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms , from the intertidal zone to about 100 m. Sometimes near rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Slow swimming over bottom or partially buried. Feeds on benthic invertebrates and fishes . Ovoviviparous, one or two litters per year with 4-10 embryos.


Threat status

Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Albanian:

Peshk Kitar, Peshk kitarë, Peshk kitarrë

Common Names in Arabic:


Common Names in Basque:


Common Names in Catalan:


Common Names in Catalan, Valencian:

Guitarra, Guitarra (peix)

Common Names in Croatian:

Ra, Ražopas

Common Names in Czech:

Rejnokovec Obecn, Rejnokovec obecný

Common Names in Danish:

Almindelig guitarfisk

Common Names in Dutch:

Gewone gitaarrog, Gewone vioolrog

Common Names in English:

Common guitarfish, common mediterranean guitarfish, Common violinfish, Guitarfish, Lengthened shape, Manta, Mediterranean longnose, Violinfish

Common Names in Finnish:


Common Names in French:

Guitare, Guitare de mer commune, Poisson guitare commun, Poisson-guitare commun, Raie guitare commune, Raie-Guitare Commune, Rhinobate commun, Rhinobate Commun De La M, Rhinobate commun de la Méditerranée, Violon de mer

Common Names in German:

Geigenrochen, gemeiner Geigenrochen, Gew, Gewöhnlicher Geigenrochen, Glattrochen, Hairochen

Common Names in Greek:

Rinovatos, Άγγελος, Καλκάνι, Κιθάρα, Ρίνα, Ρινόβατος, Σαλάχι

Common Names in Greek, Modern:

Rinovatos, Ρινόβατος

Common Names in Greek, Modern (1453):

Rinovatos, Ρινόβατος

Common Names in Greek (modern):

Rinovatos, Άγγελος, Καλκάνι, Κιθάρα, Ρίνα, Ρινόβατος, Σαλάχι

Common Names in Italian:

Calascione, Catarre, Chetarre, Galascioene, Mandolino, Pesce chitarra, Pesce violino, Pesce viuline, Pesciu chitara, Pisci chitarra, Pisci viulinu, Quatra viuline, Squadre, Squadru monicu, Squotre, Viulinu

Common Names in Maltese:

Rebekkin, Vjolin

Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:

琴犁头鳐, 琴犁頭鰩

Common Names in Polish:

Rocha, Rocha (ryba)

Common Names in Portuguese:

Cassapai, Guitarra, Rabeca, Raia tubarão, Raia-de-altura, Raia-do-alto, Raia-Tubar, Raia-tubarão, Viola

Common Names in Russian:

скат рoхл, скат-рoхля

Common Names in Spanish:

Guitarr?, Guitarra, Guitarra Com, Guitarra Com?n, Guitarra común, Manta, Picudos, Ray, Rayón, Rebeca, Viola

Common Names in Spanish, Castilian:

Guitarra, Guitarra común, Guitarró, Manta, Picudos, Rayón, Rebeca

Common Names in Turkish:

Uzunkeler balığı


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Biome: Marine .

Ecology: The common guitarfish is a bottom dwelling species with an aplacental viviparous mode of reproduction mode (the maternal adult gives birth to live young which do not have a yolk sac placenta). It can be found over sandy, muddy, shell and occasionally macro-algal covered substrates (Whitehead et al. 1984, De Buen 1935). It inhabits shallow waters in the intertidal zone to waters of up to 180 m in depth. This guitarfish tends to swim slowly along the sea bottom or partially buries itself under the substrate, feeding upon benthic invertebrates and fish (Patokina and Litvinov 2005). Scientific trawl surveys in Moroccan waters recorded the depth range of the common guitarfish as 17 to 80 m in depth (M. Hicham and A. Mouni pers. comm. 2006). Bottom trawl surveys carried out off the coast of Sierra Leone indicate that this is a sublittoral species which occurs between 10 and 100 m in depth. It was only found in waters deeper than 50 m during the summer and autumnal months and during the winter-spring seasons this guitarfish moves northwards (Litvinov 1993).

Whitehead et al. (1984) reported the maximum size of the common guitarfish as approximately 100 cm in total length (TL ). However, within the Southern Mediterranean (the Gabés Gulf ), the maximum reported sizes were slightly larger with 140 cm TL for males and 162 cm TL for females (Capapé et al. 1996). Males reach maturity at 75 cm in TL, females at 85 cm TL. The age at maturity is not known for either sex, nor the longevity of this species. The females have between one and two litters per year, with the gestation period spanning four months. Between 4 and 6 pups are produced per litter, measuring 30 cm at birth.

There is no information available on the natural rate of mortality that this species population experiences, or any further details on its population and reproductive biology . [1].

List of Habitats :


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Leiobatus panduratus Rafinesque • Raia columnae Blainville • Raja rhinobatosRaja rhinobatos Linnaeus • Raja rhinobatos Linnaeus, 1758 • Rhinobatos rhinobatosRhinobatus columnae Bonaparte • Rhinobatus duhameli Blainville • Rhinobatus rhinobatus (Linnaeus • Squatinoraja colonna Nardo


Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 30-Oct-2000

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Rhinobatos

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 41 species and subspecies in this genus:

R. albomaculatus (White-Spotted Guitarfish) · R. annandalei (Annandale´s Shovelnose Ray) · R. annulatus (Lesser Guitarfish) · R. blochii (Bluntnose Guitarfish) · R. cemiculus (Blackchin Guitarfish) · R. formosensis (Taiwan Guitarfish) · R. glaucostigma (Splaty-Spotted Guitarfish) · R. granulatus (Granulated Guitarfish) · R. halavi (Halavi Guitarfish) · R. holcorhynchus (Slender Guitarfish) · R. horkeli (Annandale's Shovelnose Ray) · R. horkelii (Brazilian Guitarfish) · R. hynnicephalus (Ringstreaked Guitarfish) · R. irvinei (Spineback Guitarfish) · R. jimbaranensis (Jimbaran Shovelnose Ray) · R. lentiginosus (Freckled Guitarfish) · R. leucorhynchus (Fiddlefish) · R. leucospilus (Grayspottted Guitarfish) · R. lionotus (Norman's Shovelnose Ray) · R. microphthalmus (Smalleyed Guitarfish) · R. nudidorsalis (Bareback Shovelnose Ray) · R. obtusus (Blunt Shovel Nose Ray) · R. ocellatus (Speckled Guitarfish) · R. penggali (Indonesian Shovelnose Ray) · R. percellens (Southern Guitarfish) · R. petiti (Madagascar Guitarfish) · R. planiceps (Peruvian Guitarfish) · R. prahli (Gorgona Guitarfish) · R. productus (Northern Guitarfish) · R. punctifer (Spotted Guitarfish) · R. rhinobatos (Common Mediterranean Guitarfish) · R. sainsburyi (Goldeneye Shovelnose Ray) · R. salalah (Salalah Guitarfish) · R. holcorhynchus (Brown Guitarfish) · R. schlegelii (Beaked Guitar Fish) · R. spinosus (Spiny Guitarfish) · R. thouin (Bennet's Shovelnose Guitarfish) · R. thouiniana (Shaw's Shovelnose Guitar Fish) · R. typus (Austalian Guitarfish) · R. variegatus (Stripenose Guitarfish) · R. zanzibarensis (Zanzibar Guitarfish)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 20, 2007:



  1. Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Bradai, M.N., Morey, G., Marshall, A.D., Compagno, L.J.V., Mouni, A., Hicham, M., Bucal, D., Dulvy, N., Heenan, A. & Rui Coelho. 2007. Rhinobatos rhinobatos. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <>. Downloaded on 04 February 2012. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-11-20