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Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Baillon's Crake, Baillon's Crake (Australasian), BaillonÌs Crake, Baillons Crake, Marsh Crake
Common Names in French:
Marouette de Baillon
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hebrew:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Common Names in Swedish:
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 5,239 meters (0 to 17,188 feet).
Behaviour African and Australasian populations of this species
are non-migratory or only make local movements in response to seasonal
changes1. Those populations in Europe and
Asia however appear to be fully migratory1, most
flying southward from late-August to October and returning to the
northern breeding areas from March to May2. The
species breeds in solitary pairs3, 4 in the spring
usually nesting during or just after the wet season
(where this occurs)1.
It is usually a solitary species, but can be found in pairs or family
groups, and sometimes forages
in small groups of up to 10 individuals
in non-breeding areas2. The species forages diurnally
but is most active
in the early morning and late afternoon or evening1.
Habitat The species frequents similar habitats throughout
and throughout the year1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
although its breeding areas are characterised by low, dense, tussocky
or continuous vegetation such as flooded sedges and grasses1.
It inhabits freshwater
or saline marshy
5, both inland and coastal (Australasia)5,
permanent and temporary, with dense emergent and floating vegetation1
(especially reeds, rushes, sedges, tall dense grasses and Typha
)3. Typical habitats include marshes, swamps
, flooded meadows1, 2, 3, damp grassland1,
seasonally flooded pans6 and depressions
grassland interspersed with patches of mud
on the margins
water1, 2, 3 (e.g.
in sand-dunes1, 5, swampy creeks
rivers5 and streams3, tall reedbeds
high)2 with extensive mud, shallow puddles
and Sesbania bushes1, and occasionally salt-marsh1,
5. The species also frequents marshy artificial wetlands
such as irrigated fields
(e.g. rice)1, 5,
ponds1, 2, 5, salt-works2, 5,
ponds1, 3, 5 and dense grassy vegetation in
rural residential areas1, 5. Although the species
shows a preference for shallowly flooded areas, breeding birds may
occupy grassland and sedges flooded to a depth of 30 cm and will
occur on floating vegetation or in tall shrubs
flooded to a depth
of 2 m2. Diet
Its diet consists predominantly
and larval insects (e.g. beetles, bugs, Odonata, stoneflies,
caddisflies, flies and mosquitos)1, 2, as well
as annelids1 (up to 10 cm long)2,
, small crustaceans (e.g. ostracods
fish1 (up to 2 cm long)2, amphibians2,
and seeds1. Breeding
site The nest
is a shallow cup
or platform of vegetation placed
close to water on a grass
or in soft grass, usually 4-60
cm above the water level1. Occasionally the nest
may be floating or anchored to vegetation in water, or placed in
or under low bushes1. Management
Changes in water level during the nesting period should be avoided,
cutting and burning
of vegetation near the waters edge
controlled and the maintenance
of natural vegetation around fish
and rice-fields should be encouraged2.
List of Habitats:
- 4 Grassland
- 4.6 Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens , Peatlands
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 5.6 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 5.7 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 5.8 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 12 Marine Intertidal
- 12.5 Marine Intertidal - Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses)
- 15 Artificial/Aquatic & Marine
- 15.1 Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
- 15.2 Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
- 15.8 Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Superorder: Charadriimorphae () - Huxley, 1867
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Porzana pusilla (Pallas, 1776)
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 28-Nov-2006
Members of the genus Porzana
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 31 species and subspecies in this genus:
(Ash-Throated Crake) · (Ash-Throated Crake) · P. astrictocarpus (Little St. Helena Rail) · (Henderson Island Crake) · P. bicolor (Black-Tailed Crake) · (Sora) · (White-Browed Crake) · P. cinerea cinerea (White-Browed Crake) · P. egregia (African Crake) · P. erythrops (San Cristobal Mountain Rail) · P. flavirostra (African Black Crake) · (Yellow-Breasted Crake) · (Yellow-Breasted Crake) · (Australian Crake) · (Ruddy-Breasted Crake) · (Ruddy-Breasted Crake) · P. marginalis (Hudsonian Curlew) · (Kosrae Crake) · P. nigra (Miller's Rail) · (Laysan Rail) · (Little Crake) · P. parva parva (Little Crake) · (Band-Bellied Crake) · (Spotted Crake) · (Baillon's Crake (Australasian)) · (Baillon's Crake (Western)) · (Baillon's Crake (Eastern)) · (Hawaiian Rail) · (Dot-Winged Crake) · (Spotless Crake) · (Spotless Crake)
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- BirdLife International 2009. Porzana pusilla. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 04February2012.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- BeBIF Provider, Royal Museum of Central Africa - Albertian Rift Birds
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- Israel Nature and Parks Authority, Israel Nature and Parks Authority
- Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Terrestrial vertebrate specimens
- National Chemical Laboratory, IndOBIS, Indian Ocean Node of OBIS
- National Science Museum of Korea, National Science Museum of Korea Bird
- Provider, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Birds
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
- , Bird specimens
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 9242
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-708058
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 176251
- IUCN ID: 235035
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 141797
- Mean = 620.440 meters (2,035.564 feet), Standard Deviation = 875.630 based on 28,136 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- BirdLife International 2009. Porzana pusilla. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 February 2012. [back]