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Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Common Names in French:
Marouette ponctu?e, Marouette ponctuée
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hebrew:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Russian:
Pogonysh, Обыкновенный погоныш, Погоныш
Common Names in Spanish:
Common Names in Swedish:
Typically found in a lake at a mean distance from sea level of 101 meters (331 feet).
Behaviour This species is fully migratory1.
Its Autumn dispersal
to its wintering
with the species returning to reoccupy its breeding grounds
April1. The species breeds in Europe from April
to July and in the former USSR from May to July1.
birds (mainly juveniles
) often moult in August during
stops on migration, during which they become flightless for c.3 weeks1,
3, 4. The species is territorial
throughout both breeding
and non-breeding seasons1 and is usually seen singly,
in pairs or in family groups, although occasionally small groups
of 2-4 individuals may forage
together on migration3.
It normally roosts at night in thick vegetation and forages by day
(although this behaviour is reversed
The species inhabits similar habitats in both its
breeding and winter ranges1, 2, 3, and generally
requires very shallow water (less than c.15 cm deep, typically foraging
in water less than 7 cm deep) that is rich in invertebrate
is interspersed with stands of low vegetation cover3.
The species shows a preference for freshwater
wetlands with a range
of water depths or where water levels vary seasonally 1,
especially where these have a mixture of muddy, moist and shallowly
flooded substrates1, 2 and a dense covering of
, sedges, rushes, Polygonum, Iris, Equisetum
and other emergents, as well as trees
Betula, Salix and Alnus)1.
Suitable habitats include seasonal and permanent marshes and fens1,
, damp meadows, the edges
, seasonally flooded pans2, pools
grassland, grassy margins
, slow-flowing rivers
settling-ponds1, 2, 3. Diet
species is omnivorous
, its diet consisting of small aquatic
and larvae (e.g. Trichoptera, Odonata, Diptera, Coleoptera,
Hemiptera, Lepidoptera and ants
), earthworms, molluscs1,
3, arachnids1 (e.g. spiders and water
)3 and small stranded fish (1-2 cm long)2,
as well as algae and the shoots
, leaves, roots
and seeds of Panicum,
Oryza, Carex and Schoenoplectus1 ,3.
Breeding site The nest
is a thick-walled cup
of plant matter,
usually placed in thick vegetation near or over standing water
alternatively in a tussock
, or built up well above the water level1.
List of Habitats:
- 4 Grassland
- 4.6 Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.3 Wetlands (inland) - Shrub Dominated Wetlands
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens , Peatlands
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 5.6 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 5.7 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 5.8 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 15 Artificial/Aquatic & Marine
- 15.1 Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
- 15.6 Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas
- 15.8 Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
- 15.9 Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Superorder: Charadriimorphae () - Huxley, 1867
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Porzana porzana (Linnaeus, 1766) • Porzana Vieillot 1816
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 28-Nov-2006
Members of the genus Porzana
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 29 species and subspecies in this genus:
P. albicollis (White-Throated Crake) · P. albicollis albicollis (White-Throated Crake) · P. astrictocarpus (Little St. Helena Rail) · P. atra (Henderson Island Crake) · P. bicolor (Black-Tailed Crake) · P. carolina (Little American Water Hen) · P. cinerea (White-Browed Crake) · P. egregia (African Crake) · P. erythrops (San Cristobal Mountain Rail) · P. flavirostra (African Black Crake) · P. flaviventer (Yellow-Breasted Crake) · P. flaviventer flaviventer (Yellow-Breasted Crake) · P. fluminea (Australian Spotted Crake) · P. fusca (Ruddy-Breasted Crake) · P. fusca fusca (Ruddy-Breasted Crake) · P. marginalis (Hudsonian Curlew) · P. monasa (Kusaie Island Crake) · P. nigra (Miller's Rail) · P. palmeri (Laysan Crake) · P. parva (Little Crake) · P. parva parva (Little Crake) · P. paykullii (Band-Bellied Crake) · P. porzana (Spotted Crake) · P. pusilla (BaillonÌs Crake) · P. pusilla pusilla (BaillonÌs Crake) · P. sandwichensis (Hawaiian Crake) · P. spiloptera (Dot-Winged Crake) · P. tabuensis (Spotless Crake) · P. tabuensis tabuensis (Spotless Crake)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- BeBIF Provider, Royal Museum of Central Africa - Albertian Rift Birds
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- GBIF-Sweden, Bird Ringing Centre in Sweden
- Institute of Nature Conservation PAS, National System of Proetcted Areas
- Israel Nature and Parks Authority, Israel Nature and Parks Authority
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Terrestrial vertebrate specimens
- National Chemical Laboratory, IndOBIS, Indian Ocean Node of OBIS
- Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara Musem of Natural History
- Senckenberg, Collection Aves
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Western Palearctic migrants in continental Africa
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Birds
- University of Gdansk, Bird Migration Research Station, Ringing Data from the Bird Migration Research Station, University of Gdańsk
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
- , Bird specimens
- University of Navarra, Museum of Zoology, Museum of Zoology, University of Navarra
- Upper Silesian Museum, Bytom, Upper Silesian Museum, Bird Observations
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 9244
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-176241
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 176241
- IUCN ID: 235034
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 141785
- Standard Deviation = 128.500 based on 8,939 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- BirdLife International 2009. Porzana porzana. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 February 2012. [back]