Common Names in English:
Sandhill Skipper, Saltgrass Skipper
'The Hesperiidae are members
of the Superfamily
Hesperioidea. Worldwide in distribution, skippers are richest in the tropics. More than 3,500 species are described, with approximately 275 in North America, many of which are found only in Arizona and Texas. Most skippers are small to medium, usually orange, brown, black, white, or gray. A few have iridescent
colors. Skippers have large eyes, short antennae (often with hooked
clubs), stout bodies, and three pairs of walking legs
. Their flight is often rapid, making wing
movement appear blurred. Adults
of most species have long probicscises and feed
nectar, but some also take up nutrients
from bird droppings. Males have scent scales
found in modified forewing
patches. Males of most species locate mates by perching
and giant-skippers), though some patrol, especially in the open-winged skippers. Globular
are laid singly.
The grass skippers are members of the Family Hesperiidae. Distributed worldwide, they comprise more than 2,000 species, most of which are found in the American tropics. The small to medium-sized adults usually have abruptly angled antennae with an apiculus at the tip . Adults of many temperate species are predominantly orange, while brown is the most common color of the tropical species. Male forewings usually have a brand or stigma with specialized scales . Most species have long proboscises and are avid flower-visitors. Adults flight is rapid, and perching posture is unique: the hindwings are opened at a wider angle than the forewings. Males of most species perch while looking for mates. Caterpillars feed on monocotyledons (grasses and allied plants ) and live in silken leaf nests that sometimes extend underground. Grass skippers typically overwinter as caterpillars within their shelters .
Species Polites sabuleti
Common and quite variable. Upperside of male is yellow-orange with dark toothed borders and a sinuous stigma on the forewing . Upperside of female has heavier dark markings and almost transparent light spots; no stigma. Underside of the hindwing in both sexes is yellow-tan with yellow veins, dark chevrons between the veins at the outer margin , and dark spots at the vein ends. (ref. 105062)
Common and quite variable. Upperside of male is yellow-orange with dark toothed borders and a sinuous stigma on the forewing . Upperside of female has heavier dark markings and almost transparent light spots; no stigma. Underside of the hindwing in both sexes is yellow-tan with yellow veins, dark chevrons between the veins at the outer margin , and dark spots at the vein ends.
Wing span : 7/8 - 1 1/4 inches (2.2 - 3.2 cm).
Caterpillar hosts: Various grasses including Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), bluegrass (Poa pratensis), desert salt grass (Distichlis spicata var. stricta), sand lovegrass (Eragrostis trichodes), rough bentgrass (Agrostis scabra), Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis), and alpine fescue (Festuca brachyphylla). Adult food: Flower nectar.
To watch for females, males perch all day in low grassy areas. Females deposit eggs singly on the host or on nearby plants . Caterpillars feed on leaves and take shelter in nests of tied leaves. Chrysalids hibernate.
Flight: One flight from June-August at high elevations ; several flights from March-October in the south and at low elevations.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- Order: Lepidoptera () - Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Members of the genus Polites
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 26 species and subspecies in this genus:
P. baracoa (Baracoa Skipper) · P. carus (Carus Skipper) · P. coras (Peck's Skipper) · P. draco (Draco Skipper) · P. mardon (Mardon Skipper) · P. mardon klamathensis (Mardon Skipper) · P. mardon mardon (Mardon Skipper) · P. mystic (Long Dash) · P. mystic mystic (Long Dash) · P. origenes (Crossline Skipper) · P. origenes rhena (Rhena Skipper) · P. peckius (Peck's Skipper) · P. rhesus (Rhesus Skipper) · P. sabuleti (Sandhill Skipper) · P. sabuleti albamontana (White Mountain Skipper) · P. sabuleti channelensis (Sandhill Skipper) · P. sabuleti ministigma (Sandhill Skipper) · P. sabuleti nigrescens (Dark Sandhill Skipper) · P. sabuleti sinemaculata (Bleached Sandhill Skipper) · P. sabuleti tecumseh (Tecumseh Skipper) · P. sonora (Sonora Skipper) · P. sonora flavaventris (Sonora Skipper) · P. sonora longinqua (Sonora Skipper) · P. sonora siris (Dog Star Skipper) · P. themistocles (Tawny-Edged Skipper) · P. vibex (Whirlabout)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Los Angeles, Calif.: The Academy, 1902-1971. url , , p. 128, p. 129, p. 131, p. 133, p. 133, p. 26, p. 50, p. 94.
- Catalogue of the family-group, genus-group and species-group names of the Hesperioidea (Lepidoptera) of the world / Charles A. Bridges. Urbana, Ill.: C.A. Bridges, c1994. url p. 3.
- Entomological news. [Philadelphia]American Entomological Society, 1925- url p. 111, p. 7.
- Guide to California insects. Berkeley, The Law press, 1913. url p. 33.
- Journal of the New York Entomological Society. Lawrence, Kan.: Allen Press [etc.] url p. 166.
- Occasional papers of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, url p. 40.
- Papers on Diptera. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1913? url p. 431.
- Phytologia. 23 1972 Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 286.
- Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series. San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences. url , p. 108.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 223.
- Studies in natural history. Iowa City, Ia. url p. 81.
- The Canadian entomologist. Ottawa [etc.]Entomological Society of Canada [etc.] url p. 431, p. 431.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 35 1975 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url , p. 193, p. 197, shapiro, page 33, p. 34, p. 345, p. 346, figs. 1-3, page 35, figs. 4-5, page 36, p. 37, p. 452, p. 453.
- The Lepidopterists' news: the monthly newsletter of the Lepidopterists' Society. Cambridge, Mass.: Lepidopterists' Society, 1947-1958. url p. 82, p. 89.
- The butterfly book a popular guide to a knowledge of the butterflies of North America / by W.J. Holland. Toronto: W. Briggs, 1898. url .
- The butterfly book: a popular guide to a knowledge of the butterflies of North America / by W.J. Holland. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1910. url p. 354.
- The butterfly book; a popular guide to a knowledge of the butterflies of North America. With 48 plates in color-photography, reproductions of butterflies in the author's collection, and many text illustrations presenting 1922 Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1922 [c1898] url fig. 170, p. 354, explanation of plate XLVII.
- Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 6 1930 [San Diego]: The Society, 1905-1989. url p. 36, p. 406.
- University of Iowa studies in natural history. Iowa City, Iowa: The University, 1918-1948. url .
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 26, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- LepIndex: The Global Lepidoptera Names Index
- Opler, Paul A., Harry Pavulaan, Ray E. Stanford, Michael Pogue, coordinators. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Mountain Prairie Information Node. March 26, 2007.
- Opler, Paul A., Kelly Lotts, and Thomas Naberhaus, coordinators. 2009. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Big Sky Institute. http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ (Version of April 17, 2009).
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 26, 2008:
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Canadian National Collection (CNC) of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Lyman Entomological Museum
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Royal British Columbia Museum Entomology Collection
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2602513
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Lep-186824.0
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: IILEP66020
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 171635