Common Names in English:
Sonora Skipper, Sonoran Skipper
'The Hesperiidae are members
of the Superfamily
Hesperioidea. Worldwide in distribution, skippers are richest in the tropics. More than 3,500 species are described, with approximately 275 in North America, many of which are found only in Arizona and Texas. Most skippers are small to medium, usually orange, brown, black, white, or gray. A few have iridescent
colors. Skippers have large eyes, short antennae (often with hooked
clubs), stout bodies, and three pairs of walking legs
. Their flight is often rapid, making wing
movement appear blurred. Adults
of most species have long probicscises and feed
nectar, but some also take up nutrients
from bird droppings. Males have scent scales
found in modified forewing
patches. Males of most species locate mates by perching
and giant-skippers), though some patrol, especially in the open-winged skippers. Globular
are laid singly.
The grass skippers are members of the Family Hesperiidae. Distributed worldwide, they comprise more than 2,000 species, most of which are found in the American tropics. The small to medium-sized adults usually have abruptly angled antennae with an apiculus at the tip . Adults of many temperate species are predominantly orange, while brown is the most common color of the tropical species. Male forewings usually have a brand or stigma with specialized scales . Most species have long proboscises and are avid flower-visitors. Adults flight is rapid, and perching posture is unique: the hindwings are opened at a wider angle than the forewings. Males of most species perch while looking for mates. Caterpillars feed on monocotyledons (grasses and allied plants ) and live in silken leaf nests that sometimes extend underground. Grass skippers typically overwinter as caterpillars within their shelters .
Species Polites sonora
Upperside is reddish-orange with a wide, light brown border . Male forewing has a wide black stigma. Hindwing has a light band of separate spots; band is more diffuse in female. Underside of hindwing varies from brown to greenish-brown, and has a narrow yellow-white band which may be composed of separate spots. (ref. 105069)
Upperside is reddish-orange with a wide, light brown border . Male forewing has a wide black stigma. Hindwing has a light band of separate spots; band is more diffuse in female. Underside of hindwing varies from brown to greenish-brown, and has a narrow yellow-white band which may be composed of separate spots.
Wing span : 1 - 1 1/4 inches (2.5 - 3.2 cm).
From sea level to 11,000 feet in coastal plains , streamsides, wet areas in high plains , and moist mountain meadows.
To wait for females, males perch in depressions in meadows all day.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- Order: Lepidoptera () - Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Members of the genus Polites
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 26 species and subspecies in this genus:
P. baracoa (Baracoa Skipper) · P. carus (Carus Skipper) · P. coras (Peck's Skipper) · P. draco (Draco Skipper) · P. mardon (Mardon Skipper) · P. mardon klamathensis (Mardon Skipper) · P. mardon mardon (Mardon Skipper) · P. mystic (Long Dash) · P. mystic mystic (Long Dash) · P. origenes (Crossline Skipper) · P. origenes rhena (Rhena Skipper) · P. peckius (Peck's Skipper) · P. rhesus (Rhesus Skipper) · P. sabuleti (Sandhill Skipper) · P. sabuleti albamontana (White Mountain Skipper) · P. sabuleti channelensis (Sandhill Skipper) · P. sabuleti ministigma (Sandhill Skipper) · P. sabuleti nigrescens (Dark Sandhill Skipper) · P. sabuleti sinemaculata (Bleached Sandhill Skipper) · P. sabuleti tecumseh (Tecumseh Skipper) · P. sonora (Sonora Skipper) · P. sonora flavaventris (Sonora Skipper) · P. sonora longinqua (Sonora Skipper) · P. sonora siris (Dog Star Skipper) · P. themistocles (Tawny-Edged Skipper) · P. vibex (Whirlabout)
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- Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Los Angeles, Calif.: The Academy, 1902-1971. url , p. 123, p. 132, p. 133, p. 135, p. 46, p. 72.
- Entomological news. [Philadelphia]American Entomological Society, 1925- url p. 206.
- Studies in natural history. Iowa City, Ia. url p. 81.
- The Great Basin naturalist. Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 340.
- The Hesperioidea of America north of Mexico; a generic revision and synopsis of the species, by Arthur Ward Lindsey, Ph.D. Iowa City, The University,  url p. 81.
- The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book IUCN url p. 418.
- The Lepidopterists' news: the monthly newsletter of the Lepidopterists' Society. Cambridge, Mass.: Lepidopterists' Society, 1947-1958. url p. 82, p. 89, p. 89, p. 89.
- University of Iowa studies in natural history. Iowa City, Iowa: The University, 1918-1948. url .
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 26, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- LepIndex: The Global Lepidoptera Names Index
- Opler, Paul A., Harry Pavulaan, Ray E. Stanford, Michael Pogue, coordinators. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Mountain Prairie Information Node. March 26, 2007.
- Opler, Paul A., Kelly Lotts, and Thomas Naberhaus, coordinators. 2009. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Big Sky Institute. http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ (Version of April 17, 2009).
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 26, 2008:
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Canadian National Collection (CNC) of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Crispin S. Guppy Collection
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Royal British Columbia Museum Entomology Collection
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2602514
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Lep-186817.0
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: IILEP66090
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 171607