Common Names in Dutch:
Klein Geaderd Witje
'The Pieridae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Worldwide in distribution, most species are found in the tropics. Adults
have medium to small wings
that are white, yellow, or orange, with some black or red, and many have hidden ultraviolet patterns
that are used in courtship
. Species with more than one generation usually have distinct
. Adults of all species visit flowers for nectar, and adults of both sexes have three pairs of walking legs
. Males patrol in search of receptive mates, and females lay
on leaves, buds, and stems. The majority of caterpillars of North American whites and sulphurs feed
on legumes or crucifers (members of the Mustard family
). Typically, temperate
species overwinter in the pupal or larval stage
, while tropical
species overwinter as adults.
Whites, marbles, and orangetips are members of the Family Pieridae. In North America, 31 species are included . Adults of most species are predominantly white above with some black pattern elements , and their hindwings often have a pattern of yellow and black scales that appear green. Sexes of most species are only slightly dimorphic , though male orangetips have bright orange wingtips. Nearly all adults are avid flower visitors. The males of almost all North American species patrol open, sunny habitats for females, although males of some tropical whites (e.g. Mexican Dartwhite) perch along ravines . Caterpillars of most western whites feed on mustards, though some use capers and others, pineneedles. All species overwinter in the chrysalis stage, and some orangetips and marbles may pass several unfavorable years in the chrysalis stage before hatching .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,158 meters (0 to 3,799 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Order: Lepidoptera () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Superorder: Panorpida ()
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Class: Insecta () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Insects
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: LT ([m ])
Last scrutiny: 06-Jan-2008
Members of the genus Pieris
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 17 species and subspecies in this genus:
P. angelika (Arctic White) · P. balcana (Balkan Green-Veined White) · P. brassicae (Large White Butterfly) · P. brassicoides (Ethiopian Cabbage White) · P. cheiranthi (Canary Islands Large White) · P. marginalis (Margined White) · P. marginalis venosa (Veined Margin White) · P. meckyae (Mecky's White) · P. napi adalwinda (Mustard White) · P. napi frigida (Mustard White) · P. napi maura (Mustard White) · P. napi segonzaci (Mustard White) · P. oleracea (Mustard White) · P. oleracea oleracea (Eastern Veined White) · P. rapae (Imported Cabbageworm;small White) · P. virginiensis (West Virginia White) · P. wollastoni (Madeiran Large White)
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- GloBIS (GART): Global Butterfly Information System. Release date: November 23, 2008
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2328919
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Gar-1771
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 5347612
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 3961517
- http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/taxonomy?f=15&sci=Pieridae&com=Whites and Sulphurs [back]
- http://bugguide.net/index.php?q=search&keys=Creusa&search=Search [back]
- Mean = 110.120 meters (361.286 feet), Standard Deviation = 157.260 based on 13,075 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]