Family : Lanterneye fishes ; Occurs along seaward reefs near or along steep drop-offs with caves. In some areas it may approach the surface. Usually feeds in large groups away from the reefs at night. Well hidden in caves during the day and rarely seen. Usually observed at night.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Danish:
Lille Lanterne, Lille Lanterneøjefisk
Common Names in English:
Eyelight Fish, Eyed Sole, Flashlightfish, Lanterneye Fish, Luminos Fish, One fin flashlight fish, One fin flashlightfish, One-Fin Flashlight Fish, One-Fin Flashlightfish, Onefin Flashlightfish, Small Flashlighfish
Common Names in French:
Common Names in Malay:
Species Photoblepharon palpebratum
Eyelightfish have a blunt
snout, a large upturned mouth
, a deeply
forked caudal fin
, and a light-emitting organ, called a photophore,
under each eye. The lateral line arches over the pectoral fins, and
each scale has a prominent
white or blue spot.
These fish are dark purplish-gray in color, with heads darker than their bodies. A bluish-white area behind the head extends onto the base of the pectoral fins, which are black. The other fins are usually a dark purplish-brown.
Size and Weight : This species can reach a length of 12 cm (4.7 in). Females are larger than males.
The bioluminescent photophores contain billions of symbiotic light-emitting bacteria, that produce a bright, lime-green light by generating chemicals similar to those used in commercially produced light-sticks. This is an example of a mutalistic relationship—the fish benefit from the bacteria providing them with light and the bacteria benefit by getting nutrients and oxygen from the fishes’ blood, as well as a safe home .
Biome: Saltwater . Reef-associated .
They are nocturnal , staying well-hidden during the day and emerging at night to feed on zooplankton , which are attracted to the light from the photophores. They also eat the smaller fishes that come to share the zooplankton. Normally, these flashlightfish feed in currents just out from the reef wall. On dark, moonless nights, they also feed near the surface of the water.
Eyelightfish have a large, bean-shaped, light organ
(called a photophore)
below each eye. While the light is produced
constantly, the fish
the light “on and off” by raising and lowering a membrane
to an eyelid
), that veils
the photophore. While the fish usually
blink 2-3 times per minute, when facing danger, they can flash their
light up to 50-70 times per minute.
The blinking of these light organs is used to communicate with fellow eyelightfish, to assist in schooling and mating, and to attract prey . Predators are confused by the use of a “blink and run” strategy, in which the fish rapidly swim in one direction with their lights “on”, then switch directions and swim with the lights “off”.- somewhat like turning a flashlight on and off.
Photoblepharon palpebratus (Boddaert • Photoblepharon palpebratus palpebratus (Boddaert • Photoblepheron palpebratus (Boddaert • Sparus palpebratus Boddaert
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Photoblepharon is neuter . Needs another reference .
Members of the genus Photoblepharon
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 3 species and subspecies in this genus:
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- Kailola, P.J. (1987). The fishes of Papua New Guinea. A revised and annotated checklist. Vol. 1. Myxinidae to Synbranchidae. Research Bulletin No. 41. Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. 194 p.
- McCosker, J.E. and R.H. Rosenblatt (1987). Notes on the biology, taxonomy, and distribution of flashlight fishes (Beryciformes: Anomalopidae). Jap. J. Ichthyol. 34(2):157-164.
- Myers, R.F. (1991). Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p.
- Myers, R.F. (1999). Micronesian reef fishes: a comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia, 3rd revised and expanded edition. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 330 p.
- Randall, J.E. (1986). 106 new records of fishes from the Marshall Islands. Bull. Mar. Sci. 38(1):170-252.
- Aquarium of the Pacific
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- FishBase 2006.
- FishBase. Release date: January 5, 2010
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 10, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 6 providers.
- Moore, Jon A. (from FishBase).
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 02, 2008:
- FishBase: FishBase DiGIR Provider - Philippine Server
- Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History: Vertebrate specimens
- Museum national d'histoire naturelle: Ichtyologie
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3403251
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-147799
- Fishbase Species ID: 7185
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 622137
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 120612
- Lieske, E. and R. Myers (1994). Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific & Caribbean including the Red Sea. Haper Collins Publishers, 400 p. [back]
- Kuiter, R. H. and Tonozuka (2001). Pictorial guide to Indonesian reef fishes. Part 1. Eels- Snappers, Muraenidae - Lutjanidae. Zoonetics, Australia. 302 p. [back]