Common Names in English:
Old World Swallowtail
'The Papilionidae belong to the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Swallowtails are worldwide in distribution and comprise approximately 560 species. They are richest in the tropics, and their brilliant colors make them favorites of butterfly enthusiasts. Many swallowtail species, especially in the tropics, mimic
other butterflies that are distasteful, while others are distasteful and cause birds and other vertebrate
to regurgitate. Swallowtail adults
are medium to large and may or may not have tails, while parnassian adults are medium, tailless, and have translucent
. All adult parnassians and swallowtails have three pairs of walking legs
, and adults of all species visit flowers for nectar.
Swallowtails are members of the Family Papilionidae. They comprise about 560 species, have a worldwide distribution, and are richest in the tropics. Many are brilliantly colored and are favorites of butterfly enthusiasts. Many species, especially those in the tropics, mimic other butterflies that are distasteful, while others are distasteful and cause birds and other vertebrate predators to regurgitate. Adults are medium to large, may or may not have tails, and have three pairs of walking legs . Adults of all species visit flowers for nectar. Males of most species patrol for mates, while males of one group (Black, Old World, Anise, and Indra Swallowtails) perch on hilltops or ridges instead of patrolling . Swallowtails lay globular eggs and overwinter as pupae. Some species spend more than one year in the pupal stage, likely to survive drought years when little caterpillar food is available. In arid areas, the Black, Anise, and Indra Swallowtails often display this strategy.
Species Papilio machaon
Upperside of hindwing near tail has reddish-orange eyespot with black along lower border touching inner edge of hindwing or at least not a centered eyespot. (ref. 105148)
Upperside of hindwing near tail has reddish-orange eyespot with black along lower border touching inner edge of hindwing or at least not a centered eyespot.
Wing span : 2 1/2 - 3 inches (6.5 - 7.5 cm).
Open hilltops, mountain meadows, tundra .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,925 meters (0 to 12,877 feet).
Flight: In north, one flight in late May-July; two flights in south.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- Order: Lepidoptera () - Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 06-Jan-2008
Members of the genus Papilio
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 81 species and subspecies in this genus:
P. aegus (Citrus Swallowtail) · P. anchisiades (Ruby-Spotted Swallowtail) · P. andraemon (Bahaman Swallowtail) · P. androgeus (Androgeus Swallowtail) · P. antimachus (African Giant Swallowtail) · P. appalachiensis (Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail) · P. aristodemus (Schaus' Swallowtail) · P. aristodemus ponceanus (Papilio Aristodemus) · P. aristor (Scarce Haitian Swallowtail) · P. astyalus (Broad-Banded Swallowtail) · P. brevicauda (Short-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. brevicauda bretonensis (Short-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. brevicauda brevicauda (Short-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. brevicauda gaspeensis (Short-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. caiguanabus (Poey's Black Swallowtail) · P. canadensis (Canadian Tiger Swallowtail) · P. chikae (Luzon Peacock Swallowtail) · P. cresphontes (Giant Swallowtail) · P. cyproeofila (Common White-Banded Swallowtail) · P. demodocus (Citrus Swallowtail) · P. demodocus demodocus (Citrus Swallowtail Butterfly) · P. demoleus (Checkered Swallowtail Butterfly) · P. echerioides (White-Banded Swallowtail) · P. eurymedon (Pale Swallowtail) · P. garamas abderus (Abderus Swallowtail) · P. garamus (Magnificent Swallowtail) · P. glaucus (Eastern Tiger Swallowtail) · P. glaucus australis (Tiger Swallowtail) · P. glaucus canadensis (Canadian Tiger Swallowtail) · P. glaucus garcia (Eastern Tiger Swallowtail) · P. glaucus glaucus (Eastern Tiger Swallowtail) · P. homerus (Homerus Swallowtail) · P. hospiton (Corsican Swallowtail) · P. hyppason (Hyppason Swallowtail) · P. indra (Indra Swallowtail) · P. indra calcicola (Indra Swallowtail) · P. indra fordi (Ford's Swallowtail) · P. indra kaibabensis (Grand Canyon Swallowtail) · P. indra martini (Martin's Swallowtail) · P. indra minori (Minor's Swallowtail) · P. indra panamintensis (Panamint Swallowtail) · P. indra pergamus (Edwards' Swallowtail) · P. indra phyllisae (Indra Swallowtail) · P. indra pygmaeus (Indra Swallowtail) · P. joanae (Ozark Swallowtail) · P. jordani (Jordan's Swallowtail) · P. leucotaenia (Cream-Banded Swallowtail) · P. machaon (Old World Swallowtail) · P. machaon aliaska (Alaskan Old World Swallowtail) · P. machaon bairdii (Baird's Swallowtail) · P. machaon hudsonianus (Hudsonian Old World Swallowtail) · P. machaon oregonius (Oregon Swallowtail) · P. memnon (Great Mormon Butterfly) · P. menatius (Menatius Swallowtail) · P. morondavana (Madagascan Emperor Swallowtail) · P. multicaudata (Two-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. multicaudata multicaudata (Two-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. multicaudatus (Two-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. ornythion (Ornythion Swallowtail) · P. palamedes (Palamedes Swallowtail) · P. palinurus (Emerald Swallowtail) · P. phorbanta (Papillon La Pature) · P. pilumnus (Three-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. polytes (Common Mormon) · P. polyxenes (Black Swallowtail) · P. polyxenes asterius (Black Swallowtail) · P. polyxenes coloro (Desert Black Swallowtail) · P. polyxenes asterius f. pseudoamericus (Black Swallowtail) · P. rogeri (Pink-Spotted Swallowtail) · P. rogeri pharnaces (Pink-Spotted Swallowtail) · P. rumanzovia (Scarlet Mormon Swallowtail) · P. rutulus (Western Tiger Swallowtail) · P. sjoestedti (Kilimanjaro Swallowtail) · P. thoas (Thoas Swallowtail) · P. torquatus (Torquatus Swallowtail) · P. troilus (Coastal Spicebush Swallowtail) · P. victorine (Victorine Swallowtail) · P. victorinus (Victorine Swallowtail) · P. xuthus (Xuthus Swallowtail) · P. zelicaon (Anise Swallowtail) · P. zelicaon nitra (Nitra Swallowtail)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- 2nd International congress of entomology, Oxford, August, 1912. .. Oxford, Printed by Hazell, Watson & Viney, Ld., 1913-14. url p. 363, p. 364, p. 366, p. 370, p. 378.
- A guide to the natural history of the Isle of Wight: a series of contributions by specialists relating to the various branches of natural history and kindred subjects / edited by Frank Morey. Newport, Isle of Wight: The County Press, 1909. url p. 395.
- A handbook of British Lepidoptera, by Edward Meyrick. London, Macmillan, 1895. url p. 355, p. 355.
- A handbook of British butterflies, being an outline of the distribution of all the British butterflies together with their food plants, times of appearance, and favorite places of resort. London, Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, 1902. url .
- A handbook to the order Lepidoptera. By W. F. Kirby. London, E. Lloyd, limited, 1896-1897. url p. 286.
- A manual of North American butterflies by Charles J. Maynard. Boston: De Wolfe, Fiske, 1891. url , .
- A natural history of the British Lepidoptera: a text-book for students and collectors / by J.W. Tutt. London: S. Sonnenschein, 1899-1904. url p. 78, p. 95.
- A natural history of the British butterflies; their world-wide variation and geographical distribution. A text-book for students and collectors. London: E. Stock, [19--?] url p. 78, p. 82, p. 94, p. 95.
- A naturalist in Himalaya, by R. W. G. Hingston, with plates and text figures. London: H. F. & G. Witherby, 1920. url p. 196.
- A new British flora: British wild flowers in their natural haunts / described by A. R. Horwood; with sixty-four plates in colour representing 350 different plants, from drawings by J. N. Fitch and many illustrations from photographs. London: Gresham, 1919. url p. 144.
- A revision of the lepidopterous family Sphingidae. By the Hon. Walter Rothschild. .. and Karl Jordan. .. (With 67 plates). Issued at the Zoological Museum, Tring, March 1903. London, Printed by Hazell, Watson & Viney, Ld., 1903. url p. 31.
- A student's text-book of zoology / by Adam Sedgwick. London: S. Sonnenschein and co.; 1898-1909. url p. 713.
- A student's text-book of zoology, by Adam Sedgwick. London, S. Sonnenschein and Co.;1898-1909. url p. 713.
- A survey and record of Woolwich and West Kent containing descriptions and records, brought up-to-date, of geology, botany, zoology, archaeology and industries of the district, with a brief photographic commentary, in commemoration of the 12th Ann General editors, C.H. Grinling, T.A. Ingram [and] B.C. Polkinghorne. Woolwich: Labour Representation Print. Co., 1909. url p. 334.
- A text-book of entomology including the anatomy, physiology, embryology and metamorphoses of insects. New York, Macmillan, 1909. url p. 203, p. 381.
- A text-book of entomology, including the anatomy, physiology, embryology and metamorphoses of insects, for use in agricultural and technical schools and colleges as well as by the working entomologist, by Alpheus S. Packard. .. New York, The Macmillan company;1898. url p. 203.
- Alaska / Harriman Alaska Expedition. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1901-1910. url p. 213.
- Alaska. New York, Doubleday, Page & company, 1901- url p. 213.
- Amino acid pools: distribution, formation and function of free amino acids; proceedings. Edited by Joseph T. Holden. Sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., under the auspices of the Institute for A[d]vanced Learning in the Medical Sciences. Amsterdam, Elsevier Pub. Co.1962. url p. 116, p. 802.
- An atlas of the chromosome numbers in animals. Ames, Iowa State College Press url p. 172.
- An outline of the theory of organic evolution, with a description of some of the phenomena which it explains, by Maynard M. Metcalf. New York, The Macmillian company; [etc., etc.]1904. url p. 200.
- Animal coloration; an account of the principal facts and theories relating to the colours and markings of animals. London, Macmillan, 1892. url .
- Animal life and the world of nature: a magazine of natural history throughout the world. London: Hutchinson, 1902-1904. url p. 388.
- Animal life in deserts, a study of the fauna in relation to the environment. LondonE. Arnold1923 url p. 124.
- Annual report / Albany: University of the State of New York, 1902-1918. url p. 64.
- Annual report of the Ohio State Academy of Science. Columbus: The Academy, 1893-1930. url , p. 20.
- Bibliography (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) / Charles A. Bridges. Urbana, Ill.: C.A. Bridges, c1993. url p. 107, p. 124, p. 126, p. 132, p. 139, p. 170, p. 186, p. 187, p. 190, p. 20, p. 262, p. 297, p. 33, p. 347, p. 353, p. 371, p. 380, p. 399, p. 418, p. 430, p. 459, p. 72, p. 73, p. 93.
- Biodiversity trends and threats in Europe: development and test of a species trend indicator RIVM, UNEP-WCMC url p. 44, p. 45, p. 46.
- Botanical abstracts. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co. url p. 322.
- British and European butterflies and moths (Macrolepidoptera). By A. W. Kappel. .. and W. Egmont Kirby. .. With thirty coloured plates by H. Deuchert and S. Slocombe. Printed in [Nuremberg] Bavaria. London, E. Nister; url p. 1, plate I.
- British flowering plants. By W. F. Kirby. With 120 coloured plates, showing the most important characters of each plant figured; and 119 illustrations in the text. London, Sidney Appleton, 1906. url p. 211.
- British insects and how to know them / by Harold Bastin. London: Methuen, 1917. url p. 92.
- British journal of entomology and natural history. [London]: British Entomological and Natural History Society, 1988- url p. 135, p. 158, p. 166, p. 215, p. 6.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology. Washington: G.P.O., 1904-1916. url p. 332, p. 332.
- Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Los Angeles, Calif.: The Academy, 1902-1971. url , , p. 11, p. 5.
- Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. [Washington, D.C.?]: Supt. of Docs., G.P.O., 1913-1923. url p. 12, p. 5.
- Butterflies. Vol. I-II. / By Lieut.-Colonel C. T. Bingham. Calcutta and Simla, Taylor and Francis;1905-1907. url p. 36.
- Cassell's natural history / by F. Martin Duncan. London; Cassell and Co., 1913. url p. 146.
- Cassell's natural history. Ed. by P. Martin Duncan. .. London [etc]Cassell & Company, Limited, 1896. url , p. 52.
- Catalog of hymenoptera in America north of Mexico / prepared cooperatively by specialists on the various groups of Hymenoptera under the direction of Karl V. Krombein. .. [et al.]. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979- url p. 539.
- Catalogue of Papilionidae & Pieridae (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) / Charles A. Bridges. Urbana, Ill: C.A. Bridges, 1988. url p. 17, p. 20, p. 22, p. 27, p. 29, p. 42, p. 74, p. 79, p. 94, p. 97.
- Catalogue of museum of natural history and miscellaneous antiquities, curios, &c., collected by Rev. Donald Miller. Bordighera, Italy, Manse Printing Press url p. 53.
- Catalogue of publications relating to entomology in the library of the U.S. Department of agriculture. ... Washington, Govt. print. off., 1906. url , .
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 110, p. 140, p. 141, p. 214, p. 229, p. 303, p. 751.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 110, p. 141, p. 214, p. 229, p. 303, p. 751.
- Comparative ecology and mimetic relationships of ithomiine butterflies in eastern Ecuador / by Boyce Alexander Drummond III. 1976. url p. 224, p. 359.
- Cooperative economic insect report. Hyattsville, MD. [etc.]Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs Animal and Plant Health Service. url p. 867.
- Darwinism: an exposition of the theory of natural selection, with some of its applications / by Alfred Russel Wallace. London; Macmillan, 1891. url p. 198, p. 202.
- Ecological animal geography; an authorized, rewritten edition based on Tiergeographie auf ockologischer grundlage / by Richard Hesse. .. prepared by W. C. Allee. .. and Karl P. Schmidt. .. New York: J. Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1937. url p. 394, p. 492.
- Embryology of insects and myriapods; the developmental history of insects, centipedes, and millepedes from egg desposition [!] to hatching, by Oskar A. Johannsen. .. and Ferdinand H. Butt. .. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, inc., 1941. url p. 425.
- Entomological news, and proceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia[Entomological Rooms of the Academy of Natural Sciences] url , , , , , , , , , , , , p. 137, p. 152, p. 152, p. 251, p. 315, p. 410, p. 410, p. 411, p. 411, p. 75, p. 75, p. 99.
- Entomological news. [Philadelphia]American Entomological Society, 1925- url , , p. 118, p. 166, p. 18, p. 205, p. 219, p. 243, p. 274, p. 281, p. 297, p. 33, p. 35.
- Eton nature-study and observational lessons, by Matthew Davenport Hill, . .. and Wilfred Mark Webb, . .. With a foreword by the Rev. Edmond Warre, . .. Part I-[II]. London, Duckworth & Co., 1903-1904. url p. 173.
- Evolution and adaptation, London, The Macmillan Company, 1908 url .
- Evolution and adaptation, by Thomas Hunter Morgan, Ph. D. New York, The Macmillan company;1903. url p. 388.
- Evolution of the color pattern in the microlepidopterous genus Lithocolletis, 1914 Philadelphia, 1914. url p. 161.
- Evolution, genetics and eugenics, by Horatio Hackett Newman. .. Chicago, Ill., The University of Chicago press url p. 331, p. 614.
- Field Museum of Natural History bulletin. Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, -c1990. url p. 14, p. 14.
- Forest entomology. EdinburghW. Blackwood1908 url p. 385.
- Frail children of the air; excursions into the world of butterflies, by Samuel Hubbard Scudder. Boston, Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1897. url p. 278.
- Genetics in relation to agriculture, New York, McGraw-Hill book company, inc.; [etc., etc.]1918. url p. 22.
- Global Biodiversity: status of the Earth's living resources WCMC url p. 9.
- Handbook of flower pollination based upon Hermann Müller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects'; tr. by J.R. Ainsworth Davis. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906. url , p. 170, p. 439, p. 449, p. 554, p. 562, p. 84.
- Handbook of flower pollination: based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' / Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906-09. url , , , , , , .
- Harriman Alaska series. City of Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1910-1914. url p. 213.
- Harriman Alaska series. vol. I-V, VIII-XIV Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Institution, 1910-14 url p. 213.
- Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico: synoptic catalog, second supplement / prepared by the staff and collaborators of the Hymenoptera Unit, Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction Research Branch, Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, under the Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1967. url p. 170.
- Illustrations of diurnal Lepidoptera, with descriptions, by Andrew Gray Weeks, jr. Boston, Printed by the University Press, Cambridge, 1905-1911. url , , .
- Insect life, by C. A. Ealand, M. A., with 74 full-page illustrations, 24 being from photographs by the author and 50 in colour from nature. 1921 London, A. & C. Black, ltd., 1921. url p. 149, p. 52, plate XXIX.
- Insects: their life-histories and habits / by Harold Bastin. London: T.C. & E.C. Jack, 1913. url p. 10, p. 9, p. 91.
- International catalogue of scientific literature. LondonPublished for the International Council by the Royal Society of London1901-1920 url p. 115, p. 122, p. 154, p. 292, p. 299, p. 313, p. 325, p. 56, p. 59, p. 602, p. 669, p. 912, p. 920.
- Journal of genetics. Cambridge: University Press, 1910-1977. url p. 116.
- Journal of the New York Entomological Society. Lawrence, Kan.: Allen Press [etc.] url p. 121, p. 127.
- Keys to the insects of the European USSR. (Opredelitel nasekomykh Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR) Compiled by G. Ya. Bei-Bienko [and others] Editorial board: B.E. Bykhovskii [and others] Translated from Russian [by] Jean Salkind. Edited by O. Theodor] Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; [available from U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, Va.], 1967- url p. 140.
- Larva collecting and breeding: a handbook to the larvae of the British Macro-Lepidoptera and their food plants: both in nature and in confinement, with authorities / by J. Seymour St. John. London: W. Wesley, 1890 url p. 1, p. 101.
- Lepidoptera indica. By F. Moore. London, 1890-1913. url p. 347.
- Les insectes, morphologie - reproduction - embryogenie, par L. Félix Henneguy. .. Leçons recueillies par A. Lécaillon & G. Poirault. .. Paris, Masson, 1904. url p. 732.
- MAB Biosphere Reserves: Site Descriptions, post compilation 5 (October 1990) UNESCO MAB Programme url .
- Mark anniversary volume; to Edward Laurens Mark, Hersey professor of anatomy and director of the zoölogical laboratory at Harvard university, in celebration of twenty-five years of successful work for the advancement of zoölo New York, H. Holt and company, 1903. url p. 459.
- Memoirs of the American Entomological Society. Philadelphia, American Entomological Society, 1916- url p. 150, p. 150.
- Molecular & general genetics: MGG. Berlin; Springer-Verlag, 1908-2001 url p. 98.
- Monograph & iconograph of native British Orchidace, by Colonel M. J. Godfery, F. L. S. With fifty-seven coloured plates from water-colour drawings of living plants by Hilda M. Godfery. Cambridge [Eng.]: University press, 1933. url p. 280.
- Museum bulletin / New York State Museum. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1908-1916. url p. 64.
- Natural history of Selborne & observations on nature / by Gilbert White; with the text and new letters of the Buckland edition; introduction by John Burroughs; illustrations by Clifton Johnson. New York, Appleton, 1895. url p. 229.
- Natural history of Selborne, and observations on nature / by Gilbert White; with the text and new letters of the Buckland edition; introduction by John Burroughs; illustrations by Clifton Johnson. Toronto: Musson Book Co., 1904. url p. 229.
- Natural science. London: Macmillan & Co., [1892-1899] url p. 175, p. 270, p. 273, p. 336, p. 366, p. 476.
- Natural science: a monthly review of scientific progress. London [etc.]: Macmillan and Company [etc.], [1892-1899] url p. 175, p. 270, p. 273, p. 336, p. 366, p. 393, p. 476.
- Norfolk, by William A. Dutt, with special articles on the bird life, botany, entomology, geology, fishing, shooting, etc., of the county, by the Rev. R.C. Nightingale, H.D. Geldart, Claude Morley, F.E.S., F.W. London, J.M. Dent & Co., 1900. url p. 202.
- Notes on the natural history of East Finmark / by A.M. Norman. London: [s.n.], 1902-1905. url p. 167.
- Occasional papers of the Museum of Natural History, the University of Kansas. 1993 Lawrence, Kan.: The University, 1971-1994. url p. 8.
- Official lists and indexes of names and works in zoology. London, U.K.: International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, c/o Natural History Museum, 2001. url p. 121.
- On the setal pattern of caterpillars and pupae / door Abraham Schierbeek. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1917. url p. 120, p. 121, p. 128, p. 2, p. 3.
- Opinions and declarations rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. London, Printed by order of the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. url , , , , , , p. 138, p. 140, p. 147, p. 151, p. 157, p. 171, p. 280, p. 283, p. 284, p. 32, p. 559, p. 615, p. 620.
- Organic evolution as the result of the inheritance of acquired characters according to the laws of organic growth / by Dr. G. H. Theodor Eimer; translated by J. T. Cunningham. .. London: Macmillan, 1890. url p. 429, p. 429, p. 429.
- Our insect friends and foes / by F. Martin Duncan; with 54 illustrations from original photographs by the author. London: Methuen, 1911. url p. 104.
- Physiological genetics, by Richard Goldschmidt. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company inc., 1938. url p. 373, p. 4.
- Polskie pismo entomologiczne = Polish journal of entomology = Bulletin entomologique de Pologne Warszawa [etc.]Panstwowe Wydawn. Naukowe. url p. 130, p. 134, p. 160, p. 3, p. 46, p. 89.
- Postilla. 1968 New Haven, Conn.: Peabody Museum of Natural History, [1950?]-c2004. url p. 10, p. 11, p. 39.
- Proceedings and transactions of the British Entomological and Natural History Society. London, British Entomological and Natural History Society. url , p. 103, p. 107, p. 115, p. 118, p. 13, p. 133, p. 14, p. 140, p. 17, p. 2, p. 20, p. 22, p. 3, p. 38, p. 44, p. 45, p. 46, p. 5, p. 50, p. 51, p. 6, p. 7, p. 76, p. 77, p. 8, p. 88, p. 9, p. 91, p. 99.
- Proceedings of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London [Eng]: South London Entomological and Natural history Society, [1897-1933] url , , p. 103, p. 103, p. 103, p. 108, p. 112, p. 113, p. 116, p. 125, p. 129, p. 13, p. 144, p. 166, p. 23, p. 32, p. 33, p. 33, p. 42, p. 44, p. 47, p. 49, p. 52, p. 58, p. 59, p. 62, p. 63, p. 64, p. 66, p. 68, p. 73, p. 76, p. 78, p. 78, p. 8, p. 81, p. 83, p. 85, p. 85, p. 86, p. 87, p. 88, p. 89, p. 89, p. 9, p. 94, p. 95, p. 97.
- Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Washington, Washington Academy of Sciences. url p. 487.
- Proceedings of the section of sciences / Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Johannes Müller, [1899-1937]. url p. 30.
- Protected Landscapes: experience around the world. Prepared for the International Symposium on Protected Landscapes, Grange-over-Sands, England 5-10 October 1987 IUCN url p. 164, p. 59.
- Readings in evolution, genetics and eugenics / by Horatio Hackett Newman. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1921. url , p. 315.
- Readings in evolution, genetics, and eugenics, by Horatio Hackett Newman. .. Chicago, The University of Chicago press[c1921] url p. 315, p. 315, p. 521, p. 521.
- Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and financial report of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents for the year ending June 30. .. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1933-1965. url p. 185.
- Report of the proceedings of the third entomological meeting: held at Pusa on the 3rd to 15th February 1919 / edited by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. Calcutta: Supt. of Government Printing, 1920. url p. 107.
- Report of the proceedings of the. .. Entomological Meeting. Calcutta: Superintendent government printing, India, 1917-23. url p. 107.
- Report on the progress and condition of the United States National Museum. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1907-1951. url p. 185.
- Science-gossip. Berlin: R. Friedländer & Sohn, -1902. url p. 102, p. 111, p. 112, p. 127, p. 140, p. 164, p. 213, p. 214, p. 228, p. 275, p. 284, p. 287, p. 289, p. 290, p. 291, p. 72.
- Scientific lectures, London, Macmillan and Co., 1890. url , .
- Scientific lectures, by the Rt. Hon. Sir John Lubbock. London, Macmillan and Co., 1890. url p. 51, p. 65.
- Scientific lectures. London, Macmillan, 1890. url p. 51, p. 65.
- Scientific results of the Zoological Expedition to British East Africa and Uganda made by Prof. V. Dogiel and I. Sokolow in the year 1914. [Petrograd, 1916- url p. 33.
- Spixiana. 12 1989 München: Zoologische Staatssammlung München, 1977- url p. 301, p. 45.
- Studies in general physiology, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1905. url .
- Studies in general physiology, by Jacques Loeb. Chicago, The University of Chicago press, 1905. url p. 42, p. 42, p. 780, p. 780.
- Studies in general physiology. Chicago, Univ. of Chic. Press, 1905. url p. 780.
- Text-book of elementary zoology, for secondary educational institutions, by Thomas Walton Galloway. .. with 160 illustrations. Philadelphia: Blakiston, 1910. url p. 248.
- Text-book of zoology; London, A. and C. Black, 1901. url .
- Text-book of zoology; treated from a biological standpoint, by Dr. Otto Schmeil; tr. from the German by Rudolf Rosenstock, M. A.; ed. by J. T. Cunningham, M. A. London, A. and C. Black, 1901. url p. 327.
- The Biological bulletin. Woods Hole, Mass.: Marine Biological Laboratory, url p. 112.
- The British nature book; a complete handbook and guide to British nature study, embracing the mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, insects, plants, etc., in the United Kingdom, by S.N. Sedgwick. .. Edinburgh, T.C. & E.C. Jack, Ltd., 1922. url p. 224.
- The Bulletin of zoological nomenclature. London, International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. url p. 1118, p. 167, p. 26, p. 482, p. 495, p. 496, p. 688.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 90.
- The Field naturalist's quarterly. Edinburgh: George A. Morton, 1902-1904. url p. 298.
- The Hope reports. Oxford: Printed for private circulation, 1897-1958. url p. 12, p. 210, p. 369, p. 403, p. 7, p. 95.
- The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book IUCN url p. 324.
- The Lepidoptera of the British Islands: a descriptive account of the families, genera, and species indigenous to Great Britain and Ireland, their preparatory states, habits, and localities / by Charles G. Barrett. London: L. Reeve, 1893-1907. url p. 13, p. 311.
- The Lepidopterists' news: the monthly newsletter of the Lepidopterists' Society. Cambridge, Mass.: Lepidopterists' Society, 1947-1958. url p. 102, p. 112, p. 25, p. 26, p. 35, p. 7, p. 75.
- The Macrolepidoptera of the world; a systematic description of the hitherto known Macrolepidoptera, ed. in collaboration with well-known specialists. Stuttgart: Seitz'schen (Kernen), 1906- url p. 11, p. 12, p. 13.
- The Review of applied entomology. Farnham Royal, Eng., etc.: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, etc. url p. 400, p. 678.
- The University of Kansas science bulletin. 39 1958 [Lawrence]: University of Kansas, 1902-1996. url p. 311, p. 319, figs. 1-8, page 362, figs. 9-23, page 363, figs. 24-25, page 364, figs. 28-33, page 366, figs. 34-42, page 367, figs. 43-57, page 368.
- The Victoria history of the county of Kent; ed. by William Page. London, Constable, 1908- url p. 179.
- The big game of Baltistan and Ladakh. A summer in High Asia, being a record of sport and travel in Balistan and Ladakh, by Capt. F.E.S. Adair. .. With an appendix on Central Asian trade by Capt. S.H. Godfrey. .. Illustrated from drawings by the author, photographs, and a map of the route. London, W. Thacker & Co.; [etc., etc.]1899. url , , , , .
- The book of British butterflies. London, L.U. Gill, 1893. url p. 225, p. 227, p. 229, p. 230, p. 231, p. 232, p. 233, p. 234, p. 236, p. 237, p. 29, p. 31, p. 33, p. 35, p. 37, p. 39.
- The book of British butterflies: a practical manual for collectors and naturalists / by W.J. Lucas; with illustrations by the author London: L. Upcott Gill, 1893 url p. 225, p. 227, p. 229, p. 230, p. 231, p. 232, p. 233, p. 234, p. 236, p. 237, p. 31, p. 33, p. 35, p. 37, p. 39.
- The butterflies of the British Isles / 1906 London: F. Warne, 1906. url classified list, page 199, p. 203.
- The butterfly book: a popular guide to a knowledge of the butterflies of North America / by W.J. Holland. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1910. url p. 312.
- The butterfly book; a popular guide to a knowledge of the butterflies of North America. With 48 plates in color-photography, reproductions of butterflies in the author's collection, and many text illustrations presenting 1922 Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1922 [c1898] url explanation of plate XLI.
- The colours of animals, their meaning and use, especially considered in the case of insects; by Edward Bagnall Poulton. .. With chromolithographic frontispiece, and sixty-six figures in text. New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1890. url p. 113, p. 114, p. 114.
- The diseases of crops and their remedies: a handbook of economic biology for farmers and students. London: G. Bell, 1890. url .
- The faunal connections between Europe and North America. New York, Wiley url p. 69.
- The gazetteer of Sikhim. With an introduction by H.H. Risley. Ed. in the Bengal government secretariat. Calcutta: Printed at the Bengal secretariat press, 1894. url p. 175.
- The germ-plasm; a theory of heredity. Tr. by W. Newton Parker and Harriet Rönnfeldt. New York, Scribner's1893. url p. 376.
- The hunting wasps / by J. Henri Fabre; Translated by Alexander Teixeira de Mattos. New York: Dodd, Mead, c1915. url p. 2.
- The hunting wasps, by J. Henri Fabre; tr. by Alexander Teixeira de Mattos. .. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1919 url p. 2, p. 425.
- The hunting wasps. Translated by Alexander Teixeira de Mattos. LondonHodder and Stoughton url p. 2, p. 391.
- The insect world: being a popular account of the orders of insects, together with a description of the habits and economy of some of the most interesting species. LondonCassell1892 url p. 172.
- The land of the blue poppy: travels of a naturalist in eastern Tibet. Cambridge, University Press, 1913. url p. 282, p. 68.
- The life of Jean Henri Fabre, the entomologist, 1823-1910, by the Abbe Augustin Fabre. Tr. by Bernard Miall. New York, Dodd, Mead and company, 1921. url p. 153.
- The natural history & antiquities of Selborne in the county of Southampton, by Gilbert White, with illustrations in colour by George Edward Collins... London: Macmillan and co., limited, 1911. url p. 400.
- The ornithology of the Straits of Gibraltar / by L. Howard L. Irby. London: R.H. Porter, 1895. url p. 311.
- The psychic life of insects / by E.L. Bouvier; translated by L.O. Howard. London: T.Fisher Unwin, 1922. url p. 208.
- The variation of animals in nature, by G.C. Robson. .. and O.W. Richards. .. with 2 coloured plates and 30 illustrations in the text. London, Longmans, Green and co. url p. 392.
- Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World: the IUCN Red Data Book IUCN url p. 119, p. 159, p. 176, p. 183, p. 327, p. 379, p. 400, p. 7, p. 8.
- Through Shên-kan: the account of the Clark expedition in north China, 1908-9 / By Robert Sterling Clark and Arthur de C. Sowerby, ed. by Major C. H. Chepmell. London [etc.]: T. F. Unwin, 1912. url p. 193.
- Through Shên-kan; the account of the Clark expedition in north China, 1908-9. By Robert Sterling Clark and Arthur de C. Sowerby, ed. by Major C. H. Chepmell. London [etc.]T. F. Unwin, 1912. url p. 193, p. 193.
- To the snows of Tibet through China / London: Longmans, Green, 1892. url p. 255.
- Transactions of the Sapporo Natural History Society. Sapporo, Japan, Sapporo Natural History Society, Hokkaido Imperial University. url , , .
- Wild animals in captivity; being an account of the habits, food, management and treatment of the beasts and birds at the "Zoo", with reminiscences and anecdotes, London, Chapman and Hall, Ld., 1899. url .
- Wild life of the world: a descriptive survey of the geographical distribution of animals / London; F. Warne and co., 1916. url p. 246, p. 443, p. 469.
- Zoology of the invertebrata: a text-book for students / London: A. and C. Black, 1893. url .
- Zoology; a text-book for secondary schools, normal schools and colleges, by Thomas Walton Galloway. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston, 1909. url p. 301, p. 301.
- Zoology; a text-book for universities, colleges and normal schools, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's son & co.[c1922] url .
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 27, 2007:
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Butterflies and Skippers of Alberta Project
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Canadian National Collection
- of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Crispin S. Guppy Collection
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Gerald Hilchie Collection
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Lyman Entomological Museum
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, M. Gollop Collection
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Norbert Kondla Collection
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History, Halifax, NS, Canada
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Provincial Museum of Alberta
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Royal British Columbia Museum Entomology Collection
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Royal Ontario Museum: Entomology
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Spencer Entomological Museum
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, University of Guelph, Department of Environmental Biology
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, University of New Brunswick Collection
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Entomological Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norwegian Lepidoptera collection, Oslo
- Nicolaus Copernicus University of Torun, The Distribution Atlas of Butterflies in Poland
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Bugs
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, Kenelm W. Philip Lepidoptera Collection
- University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Biology, Lepidoptera collection of Hannu Saarenmaa
- University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Biology, Lepidopterological Society of Finland
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2631153
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Gar-311
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: IILEP94080
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 171803