Common Names in English:
Old World Swallowtail
'The Papilionidae belong to the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Swallowtails are worldwide in distribution and comprise approximately 560 species. They are richest in the tropics, and their brilliant colors make them favorites of butterfly enthusiasts. Many swallowtail species, especially in the tropics, mimic
other butterflies that are distasteful, while others are distasteful and cause birds and other vertebrate
to regurgitate. Swallowtail adults
are medium to large and may or may not have tails, while parnassian adults are medium, tailless, and have translucent
. All adult parnassians and swallowtails have three pairs of walking legs
, and adults of all species visit flowers for nectar.
Swallowtails are members of the Family Papilionidae. They comprise about 560 species, have a worldwide distribution, and are richest in the tropics. Many are brilliantly colored and are favorites of butterfly enthusiasts. Many species, especially those in the tropics, mimic other butterflies that are distasteful, while others are distasteful and cause birds and other vertebrate predators to regurgitate. Adults are medium to large, may or may not have tails, and have three pairs of walking legs . Adults of all species visit flowers for nectar. Males of most species patrol for mates, while males of one group (Black, Old World, Anise, and Indra Swallowtails) perch on hilltops or ridges instead of patrolling . Swallowtails lay globular eggs and overwinter as pupae. Some species spend more than one year in the pupal stage, likely to survive drought years when little caterpillar food is available. In arid areas, the Black, Anise, and Indra Swallowtails often display this strategy.
Species Papilio machaon
Upperside of hindwing near tail has reddish-orange eyespot with black along lower border touching inner edge of hindwing or at least not a centered eyespot. (ref. 105148)
Upperside of hindwing near tail has reddish-orange eyespot with black along lower border touching inner edge of hindwing or at least not a centered eyespot.
Wing span : 2 1/2 - 3 inches (6.5 - 7.5 cm).
Open hilltops, mountain meadows, tundra .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,925 meters (0 to 12,877 feet).
Flight: In north, one flight in late May-July; two flights in south.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- Order: Lepidoptera () - Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 06-Jan-2008
Members of the genus Papilio
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 81 species and subspecies in this genus:
P. aegus (Citrus Swallowtail) · P. anchisiades (Ruby-Spotted Swallowtail) · P. andraemon (Bahaman Swallowtail) · P. androgeus (Androgeus Swallowtail) · P. antimachus (African Giant Swallowtail) · P. appalachiensis (Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail) · P. aristodemus (Schaus' Swallowtail) · P. aristodemus ponceanus (Papilio Aristodemus) · P. aristor (Scarce Haitian Swallowtail) · P. astyalus (Broad-Banded Swallowtail) · P. brevicauda (Short-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. brevicauda bretonensis (Short-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. brevicauda brevicauda (Short-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. brevicauda gaspeensis (Short-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. caiguanabus (Poey's Black Swallowtail) · P. canadensis (Canadian Tiger Swallowtail) · P. chikae (Luzon Peacock Swallowtail) · P. cresphontes (Giant Swallowtail) · P. cyproeofila (Common White-Banded Swallowtail) · P. demodocus (Citrus Swallowtail) · P. demodocus demodocus (Citrus Swallowtail Butterfly) · P. demoleus (Checkered Swallowtail Butterfly) · P. echerioides (White-Banded Swallowtail) · P. eurymedon (Pale Swallowtail) · P. garamas abderus (Abderus Swallowtail) · P. garamus (Magnificent Swallowtail) · P. glaucus (Eastern Tiger Swallowtail) · P. glaucus australis (Tiger Swallowtail) · P. glaucus canadensis (Canadian Tiger Swallowtail) · P. glaucus garcia (Eastern Tiger Swallowtail) · P. glaucus glaucus (Eastern Tiger Swallowtail) · P. homerus (Homerus Swallowtail) · P. hospiton (Corsican Swallowtail) · P. hyppason (Hyppason Swallowtail) · P. indra (Indra Swallowtail) · P. indra calcicola (Indra Swallowtail) · P. indra fordi (Ford's Swallowtail) · P. indra kaibabensis (Grand Canyon Swallowtail) · P. indra martini (Martin's Swallowtail) · P. indra minori (Minor's Swallowtail) · P. indra panamintensis (Panamint Swallowtail) · P. indra pergamus (Edwards' Swallowtail) · P. indra phyllisae (Indra Swallowtail) · P. indra pygmaeus (Indra Swallowtail) · P. joanae (Ozark Swallowtail) · P. jordani (Jordan's Swallowtail) · P. leucotaenia (Cream-Banded Swallowtail) · P. machaon (Old World Swallowtail) · P. machaon aliaska (Alaskan Old World Swallowtail) · P. machaon bairdii (Baird's Swallowtail) · P. machaon hudsonianus (Hudsonian Old World Swallowtail) · P. machaon oregonius (Oregon Swallowtail) · P. memnon (Great Mormon Butterfly) · P. menatius (Menatius Swallowtail) · P. morondavana (Madagascan Emperor Swallowtail) · P. multicaudata (Two-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. multicaudata multicaudata (Two-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. multicaudatus (Two-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. ornythion (Ornythion Swallowtail) · P. palamedes (Palamedes Swallowtail) · P. palinurus (Emerald Swallowtail) · P. phorbanta (Papillon La Pature) · P. pilumnus (Three-Tailed Swallowtail) · P. polytes (Common Mormon) · P. polyxenes (Black Swallowtail) · P. polyxenes asterius (Black Swallowtail) · P. polyxenes coloro (Desert Black Swallowtail) · P. polyxenes asterius f. pseudoamericus (Black Swallowtail) · P. rogeri (Pink-Spotted Swallowtail) · P. rogeri pharnaces (Pink-Spotted Swallowtail) · P. rumanzovia (Scarlet Mormon Swallowtail) · P. rutulus (Western Tiger Swallowtail) · P. sjoestedti (Kilimanjaro Swallowtail) · P. thoas (Thoas Swallowtail) · P. torquatus (Torquatus Swallowtail) · P. troilus (Coastal Spicebush Swallowtail) · P. victorine (Victorine Swallowtail) · P. victorinus (Victorine Swallowtail) · P. xuthus (Xuthus Swallowtail) · P. zelicaon (Anise Swallowtail) · P. zelicaon nitra (Nitra Swallowtail)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 27, 2007:
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Butterflies and Skippers of Alberta Project
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Canadian National Collection
- of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Crispin S. Guppy Collection
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Gerald Hilchie Collection
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Lyman Entomological Museum
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, M. Gollop Collection
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Manitoba Museum of Man and Nature
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Norbert Kondla Collection
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History, Halifax, NS, Canada
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Provincial Museum of Alberta
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Royal British Columbia Museum Entomology Collection
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Royal Ontario Museum: Entomology
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Spencer Entomological Museum
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, University of Guelph, Department of Environmental Biology
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, University of New Brunswick Collection
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Entomological Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norwegian Lepidoptera collection, Oslo
- Nicolaus Copernicus University of Torun, The Distribution Atlas of Butterflies in Poland
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Bugs
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, Kenelm W. Philip Lepidoptera Collection
- University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Biology, Lepidoptera collection of Hannu Saarenmaa
- University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Biology, Lepidopterological Society of Finland
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2631153
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Gar-311
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 5112368
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: IILEP94080
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 171803