- One of Africa's Big Five, the lion is a carnivore (meat eater) and a hunter. It uses its powerful forelegs to grab or slap down large prey that would otherwise outrun it. The jaws are short and strong with long canine teeth that are used to quickly kill the prey, either by biting the neck and strangling or by biting the nose and suffocating. The tongue's upper surface has small bumps on it which enables the lion to hold on to meat while eating and to remove parasites when grooming.
- Its legs are short with very powerful muscles enabling it to sprint and bring down large prey. The ability to retract its claws helps in protecting them so they maintain their sharpness.
- Male lions are 20 to 35% larger than the females and 50% heavier. The male's chief role is to protect the pride's territory and females from other males. Size is therefore an advantage though it increases the male's need for food. Only males grow a mane. It causes him to look bigger without increasing his weight or need for food. It also protects him from bites and scratches should he have to fight another male.
- Each lion has "whisker spots". The pattern formed by this top row of whiskers differs in every lion and remains the same throughout its lifetime. Field researchers often use this unique pattern to identify specific animals.
- Backward-curved horny papillae cover the upper surface of the tongue; these are useful both in holding onto meat and removing parasites during grooming. The roar of a lion can be heard up to five miles away and can be most intimidating up close. Territorial roaring is usually heard an hour after sunset. When separated they roar to let each other know where they are; females often call their cubs by roaring. The mature male's mane not only makes him appear larger, but protects his throat from other lions. Cubs are born with thickly spotted fur, which helps them hide from predators in brush and clumps of vegetation.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
African lion, Barbary Lion, Lion
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Lion d'afrique, Lion de Barbarie ou de l'Atlas
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Species Panthera leo
Male lions weigh between 330 and 550 pounds and stand about about 48 inches tall at the shoulder . They measure up to 98 inches in length , not including the tail, which measures an additional 35 to 41 inches. Female lions are smaller, weighing between 265 and 400 pounds. They stand about about 42 inches tall and measure less than 69 inches in length, with a slightly shorter tail. Lions have massive shoulders and strong forelimbs, long, sharp claws , and short, powerful jaws . Adult lions have fur that varies in color from light tan to reddish brown. There is a small clump of hair at the end of the tail that is darker than the other fur. Only male lions grow a mane around the shoulders, which grows darker and fuller as the animal ages.
Rich grasslands of East Africa to sands of Kalahari Desert, South Sahara to South Africa, excluding the Congo rain forest . They avoid dense forests because prey is scarce. Competition for Africa's grasslands by humans has drastically reduced the lions' range .
Typically found at an altitude of 1 to 2,033 meters (3 to 6,670 feet).
The Lion has a broad habitat
tolerance, absent only from tropical
rainforest and the interior of the Sahara desert (Nowell and Jackson
1996). There are records
of Lion to elevations
of more than 4,000
in the Bale Mountains and on Kilimanjaro (West and Packer in press
). Although Lions drink regularly when water is available, they are
capable of obtaining their moisture requirements from prey
(such as the tsama melon in the Kalahari desert), and thus
can survive in very arid
environments. Medium- to large-sized ungulates
(including antelopes, zebra and wildebeest) are the bulk of their
prey, but Lions will take almost any animal, from rodents to a rhino.
They also scavenge, displacing other predators
(such as the Spotted
Hyaena) from their kills. Lions are the most social of the cats,
with related females remaining together in prides, and related and
unrelated males forming coalitions competing for tenure over prides.
Average pride size (including males and females) is four to six adults
; prides generally break
into smaller groups when hunting. Lions
tend to live at higher densities than most other felids, but with
a wide variation
from 1.5 adults per 100 km
in southern African semi-desert
to 55/100 km in parts of the Serengeti (Sunquist and Sunquist 2002).
can vary widely even in the same region: e.g.
266-4,532 km in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park of South Africa
(Funston 2001), and 20,500 km in the Serengeti (West and Packer in
press). In India, the habitat of the Asiatic Lion is dry deciduous
. The Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
by cultivated areas and inhabited by the pastoralist Maldharis and
their livestock. Domestic cattle have historically been a major part
of the Asiatic Lion's diet
, although the most common prey is the
chital deer. Mean pride size, measured by the number of adult females,
tends to be smaller than for African Lions: most Gir prides contain
an average of two adult females (Nowell and Jackson 1996)(ref 293650).
List of Habitats:
- 1 Forest
- 1.5 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
- 2 Savanna
- 2.1 Savanna - Dry
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.5 Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
- 3.7 Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
- 4 Grassland
- 4.5 Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
- 4.7 Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
- 8 Desert
- 8.1 Desert - Hot
Lions are carnivorous
, they prefer to eat zebras, wildebeest, antelopes,
and buffalo, but they will hunt small rabbits and other small animals
as well. They will eat almost anything including other lions.
Adult females require an average of 11 pounds of meat per day and adult males, 15.4 lbs . The pride provides food to its sick and wounded members but not to the male. The male uses his size to take what he wants of the lioness' kill.
A typical diet will include zebra, giraffe, buffalo, wildebeest, gazelles and impala. Lions are opportunistic and will readily scavenge the kills of cheetahs, leopards, wild dogs and hyenas.
After a gestation period
of 100-119 days, the pregnant female leaves
the pride and finds a place to deliver. Depending on the physical
characteristics of their habitat
, lions will hide their newborn
cubs in marshes or kopjes.
The number of cubs born depends on the age and dietary condition of the mother. The litter size is 1 to 4 offspring. The pride synchronizes its reproduction so they can rear their cubs together, each suckling the others' cubs as well as their own. For example, if a lioness is away hunting, her cub will be suckled by another lactating female. Cubs are nursed 6-7 months.
Cubs reach sexual maturity at 24 to 28 months in captivity and at 36 to 46 months in the wild. The difference here is one of nutrition. Overall cub mortality rates are high. In the wild as many as 80% die before they are 2 years old. Because the cubs are not able to compete with larger ones during feeding, some of them starve. Even in times of abundance cubs may starve if all the kills are small.
If a pride is taken over by a new male who has defeated the top resident male, he will most likely kill any existing cubs that are under 2 years old. This rapidly brings the females into breeding condition, ensuring that the strongest male gets to breed and continue his genetic line .
The average lifespan of a lion in the wild is up to 16 years. In captivity, they often live 10 years beyond that.
Females mature in about two years. Lions are induced ovulators which means that they can mate at any time of the year. The period of gestation for the lion is between 105 and 118 days and about three or four cubs are born. The mother gives birth to her young in a secluded place away form the pride. The mother introduces the cubs to the pride when they are about eight weeks old. Very often, several females give birth about the same time, and they share the duties of protecting and nursing the cubs. Mothers nurse for up to eight months, although they begin to take cubs to eat animal kills when they are about three months old. At about eleven months, cubs start learning to hunt with the pride, but it will take several years of practice before the young lions become accomplished hunters. Females take care of their young until they are about two, when the mother is ready to produce a new litter .
Lions live in social groups called prides. Lions are the only cats
that live in groups. There are usually one to two males and about
seven females, but the size of each pride varies. The females are
normally sisters and cousins that grow up together. When male lions
reach about two and a half years old, the adult
male lions drive
them out of the pride. They then have to find another pride to join,
but to do this, the male lion must run off the other males in the
pride to join the pride. This usually ends in a brutal battle.
Lions are more social than most other cat species which are usually solitary by nature. They live in prides composed of 3 to 30 individuals, related adult females and their young. Each pride has its own social dominant hierarchy in which the weakest male ranks above all females. If a resident males are defeated by new males they will leave the pride and typically will never return.
On the open plains , hunting takes place at night. In areas of high grass or thick foliage , it may occur during the day. Research by Dr. Craig Packer, at the Lion Research Center, on the reintroduction of lions into South African Parks, has found that lions will ambush prey at rivers or water holes . They prefer to hunt near river confluences that funnel prey into a small areas. He has found that highly attractive spots will remain so for generations. In two parks where lions were re-introduced, the released animals explored the entire reserve before selecting a specific area and developing a clearly defined home range .
The male rarely hunts with the pride, perhaps because its mane makes it too obvious. Lionesses hunt instinctively in a cooperative fashion. When hunting in a group they fan out to surround prey and attempt to drive it toward one another. Since lions can only run 36 mph., and some of its prey can run up to 50 mph., cooperation and stealth are vital. The females are expert stalkers and the color of their coat helps camouflage them. If a female is hunting alone, it is imperative that she gets a close as possible to her prey, which often has the ability to run faster than her. If an individual is hunting alone it will only be successful about 17% of the time. If two or more hunt together they will have a success rate of 30%.
The prey is eaten by all members of the pride. As each struggles to eat as much as possible, fights erupt, growling, hissing, and paw swiping. The strongest eats the most. Afterwards they all calm down and greet each other affectionately and the peaceful cooperative life of the pride continues.
Communication: Lions communicate with each other in a wide variety of ways. The most important is through body contact. Passing lions of the same pride greet each other by rubbing their cheeks together. Sometimes this is prolonged into neck and body rubbing as well.
Grooming serves social as well as physical needs of the pride. In grooming, the hard bumpy tongue combs fur clean, cleans off blood after feeding, and removes ticks, fleas and other parasites. Grooming also reinforces social bonds.
Lions are also extremely aware of the subtle changes in posture of each other. Facial expressions are unusually varied from an antagonistic, defensive threat , with snarling or hissing to an aggressive threat with growls.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- McKenna, 1975
- (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- (Linnaeus, 1758) McKenna, 1975
- Order: Carnivora () - Bowdich, 1821
- Grandorder: Ferae () - (Linnaeus, 1758) McKenna, 1975
- Superorder: Preptotheria () - (McKenna, 1975) McKenna, in Stucky & McKenna, in Benton, ed., 1993
- Magnorder: Epitheria () - (Mckenna, 1975) M.c. Mckenna & S.k. Bell, 1997
- Cohort: Placentalia () - (Owen, 1837) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Supercohort: Theria () - (Parker & Haswell, 1897) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Infralegion: Tribosphenida () - (McKenna, 1975) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Sublegion: Zatheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Legion: Cladotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Superlegion: Trechnotheria () - McKenna, 1975
- Infraclass: Holotheria () - (Wible et al., 1995) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Subclass: Theriiformes () - (Rowe, 1988) M.C. McKenna & S.K. Bell, 1997
- Class: Mammalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) • Panthera leo leo • Panthera leo leo (Linnaeus, 1758)
Name Status: Accepted Name . Last scrutiny: 15-Aug-2007 Based on genetic analysis (O'Brien et al. 1987, Dubach et al. 2005), two subspecies are recognized: African lion Panthera leo leo (Linnaeus, 1758) Asiatic lion Panthera leo persica (Meyer, 1826) In their review in Mammalian Species, Haas et al. (2005) recognized six African subspecies, although these were not subject to analysis(Ref 293650).
Members of the genus Panthera
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 33 species and subspecies in this genus:
P. leo (African Lion) · P. leo atrox (Lion) · P. leo leo (African Lion) · P. leo persica (Asiatic Lion) · P. leo spelaea (Eurasian Cave Lion) · P. onca (Jaguar) · P. onca onca (Jaguar) · P. pardus (Leopard) · P. pardus adersi (Zanzibar Leopard) · P. pardus delacouri (Leopard) · P. pardus japonensis (North Chinese Leopard) · P. pardus jarvisi (Sinaï Leopard) · P. pardus kotiya (Sri Lankan Leopard) · P. pardus leopardus (Leopard) · P. pardus melas (Javan Leopard) · P. pardus nimr (Arabian Leopard) · P. pardus orientalis (Amur Leopard) · P. pardus panthera (North African Leopard) · P. pardus saxicolor (Persian Leopard) · P. pardus sindica (Leopard) · P. pardus tulliana (Anatolian Leopard) · P. tigris (Tiger) · P. tigris altaica (Amur Tiger) · P. tigris amoyensis (South China Tiger) · P. tigris balica (Bali Tiger) · P. tigris corbetti (Indochinese Tiger) · P. tigris jacksoni (Malayan Tiger) · P. tigris longipilis (Siberian Tiger) · P. tigris sondaica (Javan Tiger) · P. tigris sumatrae (Sumatran Tiger) · P. tigris tigris (Bengal Tiger) · P. tigris virgata (Caspian Tiger) · P. uncia (Snow Leopard)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- Advances in the study of mammalian behavior / edited by John F. Eisenberg and Devra G. Kleiman. [Stillwater, Okla.]: American Society of Mammalogists; 1983. url p. 166, p. 242, p. 276, p. 284, p. 290, p. 303, p. 325, p. 351, p. 691, p. 728.
- African Ixodoidea. l. Ticks of the Sudan... [Washington]1956. url p. 797.
- Animal Ecology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1961. url p. 458.
- Annotated CITES Appendices and Reservations CITES url p. 53.
- Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, -1965. url p. 118, p. 124, p. 135, p. 143, p. 145, p. 146, p. 162.
- Arctoid genetic characters as related to the genus Parictis / [by] John Clark -- and Thomas E. Guensburg, University of Illinois. [Patricia M. Williams -- editor.] Chicago: Field Museum Press, 1972. url p. 47.
- Biosphere Reserves, Compilation 4, October 1986: programme on man and the biosphere (MAB) IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url p. 136, p. 147, p. 196, p. 269, p. 278, p. 335, p. 361, p. 363, p. 367, p. 370, p. 387, p. 57, p. 88, p. 91.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: BM(NH) url p. 169, p. 219, p. 241.
- Catalogue of the Genus Felis / By R.I. Pocock, F.R.S. London, 1951. url p. 4.
- Checklist of CITES Species CITES, WCMC url p. 173, p. 194.
- Checklist of CITES Species: a reference to the appendices to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES url p. 158, p. 184.
- Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946 / by J.R. Ellerman and T.C.S. Morrison-Scott. London: BM(NH), 1966. url p. 315, p. 319.
- Checklist of mammals listed in the CITES appendices and in EC Regulation 338/97 JNCC url p. 77.
- Chilopods in the collections of Field Museum of Natural History, by Ralph V. Chamberlin. 28 1944 Chicago, 1944 url p. 222.
- Directory of Wetlands of International Importance. IUCN url p. 484.
- Do we owe our intelligence to a predatory past? / C.K. Brain. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 2001. url p. 12, p. 18.
- Field Museum of Natural History bulletin. Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, -c1990. url p. 12.
- Fishery bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service: url p. 119, p. 551.
- Global Biodiversity: status of the Earth's living resources WCMC url p. 195.
- IUCN Directory of Afrotropical Protected Areas IUCN, UNEP url p. 10, p. 1027, p. 103, p. 106, p. 108, p. 109, p. 118, p. 12, p. 120, p. 124, p. 130, p. 139, p. 142, p. 148, p. 15, p. 158, p. 167, p. 17, p. 18, p. 187, p. 190, p. 192, p. 193, p. 197, p. 230, p. 239, p. 263, p. 268, p. 272, p. 274, p. 28, p. 288, p. 292, p. 293, p. 301, p. 306, p. 307, p. 373, p. 374, p. 379, p. 380, p. 39, p. 40, p. 432, p. 435, p. 436, p. 457, p. 465, p. 467, p. 47, p. 480, p. 484, p. 487, p. 49, p. 490, p. 5, p. 509, p. 51, p. 52, p. 529, p. 584, p. 6, p. 63, p. 645, p. 65, p. 652, p. 7, p. 725, p. 798, p. 80, p. 802, p. 82, p. 827, p. 831, p. 834, p. 836, p. 839, p. 846, p. 850, p. 858, p. 861, p. 863, p. 88, p. 885, p. 890, p. 891, p. 895, p. 898, p. 899, p. 901, p. 911, p. 920, p. 922, p. 936, p. 943, p. 944, p. 949, p. 951, p. 952, p. 955, p. 973, p. 977, p. 980, p. 982, p. 983, p. 985, p. 990.
- In the field: the bulletin of the Field Museum of Natural History. Chicago, IL: Field Museum of Natural History, c1990- url p. 4, p. 5, p. 5, p. 6.
- Industrial reliance on biodiversity. WCMC Biodiversity Series 7 WCMC url p. 32.
- International code of zoological nomenclature / Code international de nomenclature zoologique Berkeley, Calif., USA: [distributed by the] University of California Press, 1985. url p. 267, p. 293.
- Journal of ethnobiology. 6 1986 Flagstaff, Ariz.: Center for Western Studies, 1981- url p. 276.
- Joy of nature: how to observe and appreciate the great outdoors / [editor, Alma E. Guinness]. Pleasantville, N.Y.: Reader's Digest Association, c1977. url p. 334.
- MAB Biosphere Reserves: Site Descriptions, post compilation 5 (October 1990) UNESCO MAB Programme url .
- Mammalian masticatory apparatus / [by] William D. Turnbull -- [Chicago]: Field Museum Press, 1970. url p. 354.
- Mammals of the Soviet Union / V.G. Heptner, A.A. Nasimovich, and A.G. Bannikov; scientific editor, Robert S. Hoffmann. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, 1988- url , p. 747, p. 82, p. 83, p. 88, p. 92.
- Oceanus. Woods Hole, Mass., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution url p. 50.
- Papers on mammalogy, published in honor of Wilfred Hudson Osgood. 27 1941 Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1941 url p. 140, p. 394, p. 8.
- Private protected areas: a preliminary study of initiatives to conserve biodiversity in selected African countries WCMC url p. 13, p. 14, p. 15, p. 21, p. 22, p. 25, p. 26, p. 27, p. 29, p. 41, p. 43, p. 51.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 117.
- Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Sydney, Linnean Society of New South Wales. url p. 311.
- Proceedings of the United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.] url p. 603.
- Protozoan parasites of domestic animals and of man. Minneapolis, Burgess Pub. Co. url p. 396.
- Readings in mammalogy / selected from the original literature and introduced with comments by J. Knox Jones, Jr., and Sydney Anderson. [Lawrence, Kans.]: Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 1970. url p. 372.
- Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and financial report of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents for the year ending June 30. .. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1933-1965. url p. 118, p. 124, p. 138, p. 143, p. 145, p. 146, p. 156, p. 162.
- Selected readings in mammalogy: selected from the original literature and introduced with comments / by J. Knox Jones, Jr., Sydney Anderson, and Robert S. Hoffmann. Lawrence, Kan.: Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 1976. url p. 392.
- Seventy-five years of mammalogy, 1919-1994 / edited by Elmer C. Birney, Jerry R. Choate. [Provo, Utah]: American Society of Mammalogists, c1994. url p. 411, p. 412, p. 413.
- Smithsonian year. 1965 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965-1976. url p. 172, p. 363.
- Smithsonian year: annual report of the Smithsonian Institution for the year ended Sept. 30. .. 1979 City of Washington: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 1980-2001. url p. 425.
- Special scientific report--wildlife / U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service, 1949- url p. 19, p. 35.
- Syllogeus. Ottawa, National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1972-1995. url p. 59, p. 85.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 119, p. 119, p. 120, p. 121, p. 121, p. 313.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 145, p. 155, p. 156, p. 31, p. 32, p. 497, p. 52, p. 521, p. 580, p. 635, p. 70, p. 71, p. 755, p. 780.
- The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: Africa IUCN url p. 128, p. 172.
- The carnivores of West Africa. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 1974. url p. 460, p. 461, p. 463, p. 465, p. 467, p. 469, p. 471, p. 473, p. 475, p. 477, p. 479, p. 481, p. 483, p. 485, p. 487, p. 489, p. 491.
- The carotid arteries in the Procyonidae [by] H. Elizabeth Story. 32 1951 [Chicago]1951. url p. 542.
- The mammals of Africa: country lists. Draft document IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre, UNEP, WWF url , , , , , , , , , , , , .
- The mammals of the Caucasus; a history of the evolution of the fauna. (Mlekopitayushchie Kavkaza; istoriya formirovaniya fauny). [By] N. K. Vereskchagin. Chief editor: E. N. Pavlovskii. Editor of this volume: A. A. Strelkov. Translated from Russian [by A. Lerman and B. Rabinovich. Edited by M. Loeb] Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations [available from the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, Va.], 1967. url p. 139, p. 150, p. 163, p. 164, p. 231, p. 242, p. 266, p. 467.
- The scurrying bush, by R.C.H. Sweeney. New York, Pantheon Books, [c1965] url p. 207.
- Vertebrate life / Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, c1996. url p. 787.
- Veröffentlichungen der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München. München: Die Staatssammlung, url , p. 101, p. 102, p. 103, p. 114, p. 119, p. 15, p. 154, p. 159, p. 161, p. 184, p. 20, p. 217, p. 220, p. 229, p. 231, p. 232, p. 233, p. 234, p. 236, p. 237, p. 246, p. 249, p. 250, p. 254, p. 257, p. 261, p. 265, p. 266, p. 269, p. 270, p. 271, p. 274, p. 279, p. 32, p. 50, p. 52, p. 8, p. 97.
- World Checklist of Threatened Mammals JNCC url p. 145.
- Bauer, H., Nowell, K. and Packer, C. 2008. Panthera leo. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 03February2012.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 30, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
- Borror Laboratory of Bioacoustics, Borror Laboratory of Bioacoustics
- Field Museum, Mammal specimens
- Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, Vertebrate specimens
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Michigan State University Museum, Vertebrate specimens
- Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Terrestrial vertebrate specimens
- Royal Ontario Museum, Mammal specimens
- University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Biology, Animal observations
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
- University of Minnesota Bell Museum of Natural History, Mammal specimens
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2478185
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-726446
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 183803
- IUCN ID: 229703
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 179915