'The Nymphalidae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Distributed worldwide, butterflies of this family
are especially rich in the tropics. They are highly variable, and there are more species in this family than in any other. Adults
vary in size from small to large, and their front legs
are reduced, unable to be used for walking. Wing
is also highly variable: some species have irregular margins
(anglewings and commas), and others have long taillike projections (daggerwings). Browns, oranges, yellows, and blacks are frequent colors, while iridescent
colors such as purples and blues are rare. Adults of some groups are the longest-lived butterflies, surviving 6-11 months. Adult feeding behavior depends on the species, where some groups primarily seek flower nectar while others only feed
, rotting fruit, dung, or animal carcasses. Males exhibit
behaviors when seeking mates. Egg-laying
varies widely, as some species lay eggs
in clustsers, others in columns, and others singly. Caterpillar appearance
and behavior vary widely. Brushfoots overwinter
as larvae or adults.
The Charaxinae are members of the Family Nymphalidae. These leafwings and relatives are primarily a tropical group of medium to large-sized, robust , fast-flying butterflies. In North America, they are limited to the leafwings.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Superorder: Panorpida ()
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Class: Insecta () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Insects
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Members of the genus Palla
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species and subspecies in this genus:
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- Elephant-hunting in east equatorial Africa; being an account of three years' ivory-hunting under Mount Kenia and among the Ndorobo savages of the Lorogi Mountains, including a trip to the north end of Lake Rudolph, by Arthur H. Neumann; with numerous illustrations by J.G. Millais, E. Caldwell and G.E. Lodge; coloured plate and map. London: R. Ward, limited, 1898. url p. 442.
- Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 18 1895 Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.] url p. 237, p. 262, p. 571, p. 741, p. 752, p. 803.
- Sketch of the forestry of West Africa with particular reference to its present principal commercial products. London, S. Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, 1887. url .
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 42.
- The Entomologist. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., [1877- url , p. 135.
- Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. London, The Society. url p. 194.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 31, 2012.
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1492701