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Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Ivory Gull, ice partridge, snow-white gull, white-winged gull
Common Names in French:
mouette blanche, Mouette ivoire
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Russian:
Belaya Chayka, Чайка белая
Common Names in Spanish:
Gaviota marfil, Gaviota Marfileña
Common Names in Swedish:
About 15 to 17 inches long, with a wingspan of 37 to 37 inches. Adults weigh about 22.4 ounces .
This species is migratory18. It breeds
late-June and August (although most pairs do not lay
and some pairs may not breed if food conditions are unfavourable)
in colonies of 5-60 pairs (rarely more than 100 pairs)6.
It departs from the breeding grounds
between August and October,
returning late-February to early-June18. Outside
of the breeding season
the species is weakly gregarious
singly or in flocks of up to 20 individuals17.
Larger numbers also gather in the spring
groenlandicus whelping sites, where they feed
discarded placentae6. The species also regularly
bears Thalarctos maritimus to feed on scraps
from their kill6. Habitat Breeding
It breeds in the high Arctic
north of the July 5oC isotherm17
on coastal or inland cliffs6, 17 up to 300 m
ice-fields or on bare, level shorelines
with low rocks6,
17. Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season
it associates with the edges
, showing a preference for
areas with 70-90% ice cover6. Diet Its diet
consists predominantly of fish, shrimps, shellfish
, algae and carrion
seal placentae)6. Breeding site The
is constructed of moss, straw and other debris
on a snow-free
area of rock6. Nest sites include broad upper ledges
of steep, inaccessible coastal or inland cliffs6, 17
up to 300 m high17, broken ice-fields and bare,
level shorelines with low rocks6, 17. On cliffs
pairs usually nest within 10 m of the top in small colonies with
of 1-20 m6.
List of Habitats :
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.1 Marine Neritic - Pelagic
- 9.2 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
- 9.3 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel
- 9.4 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
- 9.5 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy-Mud
- 9.7 Marine Neritic - Macroalgal/Kelp
- 9.9 Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
- 10 Marine Oceanic
- 10.1 Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m)
- 10.2 Marine Oceanic - Mesopelagic (200-1000m)
- 12 Marine Intertidal
- 12.1 Marine Intertidal - Rocky Shoreline
- 12.6 Marine Intertidal - Tidepools
- 13 Marine Coastal/Supratidal
- 13.1 Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands [more info]
Mostly fish, aquatic invertebrates , and carrion .
- Clutch Size: 2
- Length of Incubation : 24-26 days
- Days to Fledge : >35
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Huxley, 1867
- Huxley, 1867
- Suborder: Lari () - Sharpe, 1891
- Order: Charadriiformes () - Huxley, 1867
- Superorder: Charadriimorphae () - Huxley, 1867
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Pagophila eburnea (Phipps, 1774)
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 17-Oct-2001
Iceland and Glaucous Gulls are similarly pale but are much larger and lack the black legs and yellow-tipped bill. First-year plumage is unmistakeable.
Members of the genus Pagophila
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 2 species and subspecies in this genus:
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 10, 2008:
- Avian Knowledge Network: eBird
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: North West Territories and Nunavut Bird Checklist, Canada
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Royal British Columbia Museum
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Bird Collection
- EMAN Provider: PIROP (Shipboard Surveys)
- GBIF-Sweden: Birds (GBIF-SE:Artdatabanken)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Bay of Fundy Species List (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: SEAMAP - marine mammals, birds and turtles
- Museum of Vertebrate Zoology: Terrestrial vertebrate specimens
- New Brunswick Museum: NBM birds
- Senckenberg: Collection Aves (bird skeletons)
- UCLA-Dickey Bird Collection (UCLA-Dickey): Bird specimens
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Argyll Bird Club - Bird records for Argyll for the years 2002 and 2003
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ): Bird specimens
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8359
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-176851
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4490920
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 176851
- IUCN ID: 229428
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNNM07010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 13009