Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Black-crowned Night Heron, Black-crowned Night-Heron, American night heron, Black-crowned Night-Heron., Blackcrowned Night Heron, Night Heron, Qua Bird, qua-bird, Quawk, quok, squawk
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
H?ron bihoreau, bihoreau gris, Héron bihoreau
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hebrew:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Russian:
Kvakva, Кваква, Кваква обыкновенная
Common Names in Spanish:
Martinete, Martinete Común, Pedrete corona negra
Common Names in Swedish:
Adult : Head : Cap: black Crown: glossy black. Breeding adults have 2-3 long white plumes on the back of the crown Ear Tufts: red Face : Eyebrow Line : white Eye Color: red Facial Skin : yellow-green Bill: dark, mostly black Neck: Nape: black Sides: gray Body: Back: glossy black Underparts: creamy Upperparts: white Legs : Foot Color: yellow Leg Color: yellow Tail: gray Undertail Coverts: pale gray Uppertail Coverts: pale gray.Breeding: Head: Cap: black Crown: glossy black. Breeding adults have 2-3 long white occipital plumes on the back of the crown Ear Tufts: red Face: Eyebrow Line: white Eye Color: red Facial Skin: brighter yellow-green than non-breeding. Bill: dark, mostly black Neck: Nape: black Sides: gray Body: Back: glossy black Upperparts: white Legs: Foot Color: brighter yellow than non-breeding. Leg Color: yellow Tail: gray Undertail Coverts: pale gray Uppertail Coverts: pale gray.Immature: Face: Eye Color: yellow Facial Skin: brighter yellow-green than non-breeding. Bill: dark, mostly black.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,422 meters (0 to 11,227 feet).
Behavior Northern populations of this species are migratory, with
those breeding in the western Palearctic
travelling on a broad front
across the Sahara1 and those breeding in North
American travelling on a narrow front along the Atlantic and Pacific
coasts2. Post-breeding southward movements occur
from September to October and return northward movements occur from
March to May2. Tropical
populations are not migratory
but may undergo seasonal post-breeding dispersive movements1.
In temperate regions
breeding occurs in the local spring
, with tropical
nesting generally coinciding with the rains2.
The species usually nests
in small numbers7 in
single- or mixed-species colonies1, although sometimes
groups may reach several thousand pairs1. When
nesting within mixed-species colonies the species tends to form monospecific
clusters2. The species's aggregatory behaviour
outside of the breeding season
varies much throughout its range
some populations (e.g.
in America) remaining highly gregarious
the year7 and gathering in flocks of hundreds
even thousands to roost1, others (e.g. Palearctic
breeders) being largely solitary except when roosting or on migration7
(roosting flocks of 2-6 to 200 are known in Africa5
and small flocks occur on migration)1. The species
is largely crepuscular and nocturnal
, but may feed
during the breeding season1. Habitat The
species inhabits fresh, brackish
or saline waters with aquatic
(e.g. pine, oak or mangroves
) for roosting and
nesting in1, showing a preference for islands or
predator-free areas for nesting sites2. It occupies
the forested margins
of shallow rivers
, marshes and mangroves and may feed on pastures, reservoirs
canals, aquaculture ponds1 and rice-fields (up
to 96 % of a colony's food resources
may be taken from nearby rice-fields)2.
On migration the species may also frequent dry grasslands or marine
coasts1, kelp beds2 and estuaries6.
up to 4,800 m
(Chile)2 but is more common
of up to c.2,000 m7. Diet
It is an opportunistic
taking fish, frogs
, lizards, adult
and larval insects1 (e.g.
beetles, bugs, grasshoppers, crickets, flies and dragonflies)2,
spiders, crustaceans, molluscs
, leeches, small rodents, bats and
and chicks of other bird species1. Breeding
site The nest is platform constructed of sticks
2 placed 2-50 m above water or on dry ground
in trees, bushes, reedbeds, on cliff
rivers)6 and on the ground1 in
protected sites2. The species nests close together
in single- and mixed-species colonies1 with as
many as 20-30 pairs in the same tree2. Colony
may be reused in consecutive years or flocks may move to new sites
(usually such movements are a result of nesting trees being destroyed
due to the colony's nesting activities)2. Colony
sites are dispersed throughout the landscape in relation to distance
from feeding areas2. Management
A study carried out in north-west Italy suggests that existing nesting
sites should be protected and that breeding habitats should be actively
managed in order
to maintain suitable habitat
The creation of a network
of new nesting sites spaced at 4-10 km
in relation to available foraging
habitats in zones currently without
suitable nesting sites is also recommended13.
List of Habitats:
- 1 Forest
- 1.6 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
- 1.7 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps , Fens , Peatlands
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 12 Marine Intertidal
- 12.5 Marine Intertidal - Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses)
Mostly fish, with some aquatic invertebrates , reptiles , amphibians , and small mammals.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Garrod, 1874
- Wagler, 1830
- Parvorder: Ciconiida ()
- Infraorder: Ciconiides () -
- Suborder: Ciconii () -
- Order: Pelecaniformes () - Wagler, 1830
- Superorder: Ciconiimorphae () - Garrod, 1874
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758)
Members of the genus Nycticorax
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 18 species and subspecies in this genus:
(Nankeen Night Heron) · (Nankeen Night Heron) · N. caledonicus crassirostris (Bonin Nankeen Night Heron) · N. duboisi (Reunion Night-Heron) · N. goisagi (Long-Billed Murrelet) · N. leuconotus (White-Backed Night-Heron) · N. magnificus (White-Eared Night Heron) · N. mauritianus (Mauritius Night-Heron) · N. megacephalus (Niceforo Brown Pintail) · N. melanolophus (Malayan Night Heron) · (Black-Crowned Night-Heron) · (Black-Crowned Night-Heron (Falklands)) · (Black-Crowned Night-Heron (American)) · (Black-Crowned Night-Heron (Eurasian)) · (Black-Crowned Night-Heron (Dusky)) · N. nycticorax violaceus (Yellow-Crowned Night Heron) · N. violaceus (Yellow-Crowned Night Heron) · N. violaceus violaceus (Yellow-Crowned Night Heron)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 06, 2007:
- Avian Knowledge Network, eBird
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Ontario Nest Records
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Birds
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Royal British Columbia Museum
- New Brunswick Museum, NBM birds
- Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara Musem of Natural History
- Senckenberg, Collection Aves
- Senckenberg, Collection Aves
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Western Palearctic migrants in continental Africa
- The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx River Bioblitz
- UNIBIO, IBUNAM, CNAV/Coleccion Nacional de Aves
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
- , Bird specimens
- Upper Silesian Museum, Bytom, Upper Silesian Museum, Bird Observations
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8851
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-174832
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481187
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 174832
- IUCN ID: 227354
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNGA11010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 178009
- Mean = 127.110 meters (417.028 feet), Standard Deviation = 625.070 based on 4,158 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- BirdLife International 2009. Nycticorax nycticorax. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 February 2012. [back]