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Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Dusky Large Blue
'The Lycaenidae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Worldwide in distribution, this family
has approximately 4,700 species that are unevenly distributed. Coppers are especially dominant in north temperate regions
, blues are richest
in the Old World tropics and north temperate
zones, and hairstreaks are particularly abundant in New World tropics. The adults
are typically small to tiny and often brilliantly colored--iridescent blues, bright reds, and oranges. Adults of both sexes have three pairs of walking legs
, though most males have fused segments in their front legs. Most adults visit flowers for nectar, but some harvesters feed
on wooly aphid honeydew and some hairstreaks feed on aphid honeydew or bird droppings. Females lay
urchin shaped eggs
on host leaves or flower buds; the resulting caterpillars are typically slug-shaped. In many species, caterpillars depend on ants
for protection, so caterpillars produce
sugary secretions that are collected by the ants. Most species overwinter in either the egg or pupal stage.
Blues are tiny to small butterflies of the Family Lycaenidae. Distributed worldwide, they are most diverse in Southeast Asia, tropical Africa, and northern temperate regions . Most of the nearly 50 North American species are found in the west. Adult males are predominantly blue above, due to reflected light rather than pigmentation . Some males and most females are largely brown above. Below, wings of both sexes are usually gray-white with black spots or streaks. Adults in some genera (Euphilotes, Lycaeides, Plebulina, and Icaricia) have more or less prominent orange submarginal bands on their hindwings . Most adults are found near their host plants , and they do not fly long distances , though some tropical and subtropical species undertake long migrations. Adults visit flowers for nectar. Males frequent moist sand and mud , and females lay eggs singly on host plant leaves or flowers. As caterpillars, they secrete sugary secretions that attract ants , and caterpillars of some species are raised in ant nests. Blues usually overwinter in the pupal stage.
Ecology: Occurs in damp habitats where the foodplant Great Burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis) is found.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Order: Lepidoptera () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Superorder: Panorpida ()
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Class: Insecta () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Insects
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Maculinea nausithous< /i> (Bergsträsser
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Members of the genus Maculinea
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 6 species and subspecies in this genus:
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
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- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
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- 1994 IUCN red list of threatened animals Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1993 url p. 181.
- Catalogue of the family-group, genus-group and species-group names of the Riodinidae & Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera) of the world / Charles A. Bridges. Urbana, Ill.: C.A. Bridges, c1994. url p. 123.
- Checklists for the CORINE Biotopes Programme and its application in the PHARE countries of Central and East Europe: including comparisons with relevant conventions and agreements on the conservation of European species and habitats EC url p. 108, p. 12.
- Insects and other invertebrates as candidates for the Bern Convention IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url , , p. 5.
- Invertebrates in need of special protection in Europe Council of Europe url p. 158, p. 161.
- Proceedings and transactions of the British Entomological and Natural History Society. London, British Entomological and Natural History Society. url p. 11, p. 14.
- Spixiana. 12 1989 München: Zoologische Staatssammlung München, 1977- url p. 301.
- The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book IUCN url p. 322, p. 38, p. 40, p. 41, p. 42, p. 451, p. 452, p. 453, p. 454, p. 457, p. 625.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 17, 2008:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- Institute of Environmental Sciences UJ, Lepidoptera of Cracow City
- Institute of Nature Conservation PAS, Bumblebees, cuckoobees and butterflies
- Nicolaus Copernicus University of Torun, The Distribution Atlas of Butterflies in Poland
- SysTax, Lobbecke Museum Dusseldorf
- SysTax, SysTax
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 9072413
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Lep-204866.0
- IUCN ID: 12662
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 7012
- http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/taxonomy?f=16&sci=Lycaenidae&com=Gossamer-wing Butterflies [back]
- http://bugguide.net/index.php?q=search&keys=Plebulina&search=Search [back]
- World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1996. In IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCNRedList.org. Downloaded July 18, 2008. [back]