Common Names in English:
Height commonly exceeding 5 mm, and in some species slightly exceeding 1.5 cm; operculum horny ; periostracum not uniformly tan or brown (Almagorda subrotundata is brown, but usually has spiral banding ) (mostly at higher tide levels on rocly shores , or on rocks, concrete and wood in bays , sometimes in salt marshes).
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of -24 meters (-79 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758) Cuvier, 1795
- Cuvier, 1795
- Snails and Slugs
- Ponder & Lindberg, 1996
- Cox, 1960
- Ponder & Lindberg, 1997
- Ponder & Lindberg, 1997
- Infraorder: Littorinimorpha () - Golikov & Starobogatov, 1975
- Suborder: Hypsogastropoda () - Ponder & Lindberg, 1997
- Order: Sorbeoconcha () - Ponder & Lindberg, 1997
- Superorder: Caenogastropoda () - Cox, 1960
- Subclass: Orthogastropoda () - Ponder & Lindberg, 1996
- Class: Gastropoda () - Cuvier, 1795 - Snails and Slugs
- Phylum: Mollusca () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758) Cuvier, 1795 - Molluscs
- Superphylum: Eutrochozoa ()
- Infrakingdom: Lophotrochozoa ()
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 17-Oct-2001
Members of the genus Littorina
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 15 species and subspecies in this genus:
L. angulifera (Mangrove Periwinkle) · L. angustior (Slender Periwinkle) · L. irrorata (Marsh Periwinkle) · L. keenae (Eroded Periwinkle) · L. lineolata (Lineolate Periwinkle) · L. littorea (Common Periwinkle) · L. meleagris (White-Spot Periwinkle) · L. mespillum (Brown Periwinkle) · L. nebulosa (Cloudy Periwinkle) · L. neglecta (Obscure Periwinkle) · L. obtusata (Yellow Periwinkle) · L. saxatilis (Rough Periwinkle) · L. scutulata (Checkered Periwinkle) · L. sitkana (Sitka Periwinkle) · L. ziczac (Zebra Periwinkle)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- ...Scientific results of the cruises of the yachts "Eagle" and "Ara", 1921-1928, William K. Vanderbilt, commanding. Crustacea... By Lee Boone. Huntington, N. Y., Priv. print. [The Science press printing company, Lancaster, Pa.]1930- url p. 18, p. 219, p. 39.
- A Treatise on Zoology. Part V. Mollusca / by Paul Pelseneer. London: A. & C. Black, 1906. url p. 34, p. 35, p. 81.
- A biological survey of the waters of Woods Hole and vicinity / By Francis B. Sumner, Raymond C. Osburn, and Leon J. Cole. Washington: Govt. Print. Off., 1913 url p. 199.
- A catalog of recent Mollusca from all parts of the world. St. Petersburg, Fa: W.F. Webb, 19--. url p. 149, p. 19.
- A complete catalogue of British Mollusca. Compiled from Jeffreys' "British conchology, " with alterations and additions to date. By Charles Jefferys. .. Gloucester, H.W. Marsden, 1887. url p. 34.
- A guide to the shell and starfish galleries (Mollusca, Polyzoa, Brachiopoda, Tunicata, Echinoderma, and worms). Department of Zoology, British museum (Natural history). With numerous illustrations. [London]: Printed by order of the trustees, 1901. url p. 14.
- A manual of palaeontology for the use of students with a general introduction on the principles of palaeontology, by Henry Alleyne Nicholson. Edinburgh, London: W. Blackwood and sons, 1872. url p. 560.
- A manual of palæontology for the use of students: with a general introduction on the principles of palaeontology. Edinburgh, Blackwood, 1872. url p. 560.
- A manual of the Mollusca: a treatise on recent and fossil shells / by Dr. S. P. Woodward; with an appendix of recent and fossil conchological discoveries to the present time, by Ralph Tate; illustrated by A. N. Waterhouse and Joseph Wilson Lowry. London: Virtue & Co., 1868. url p. 144, p. 251, p. 528, p. 63.
- A manual of the Mollusca: being a treatise on recent and fossil shells. London: C. Lockwood and Co., 1880. url p. 528, p. 63.
- A synoptic text-book of zoölogy, for colleges and schools / by Arthur Wisswald Weysse. New York: Macmillan, 1904, c1903. url .
- A treatise on zoology London, A. and C. Black, 1900-1909 url p. 105, p. 34, p. 35, p. 81.
- A treatise on zoology. London, Adam and Charles Black, 1900-1909 url p. 105, p. 34, p. 35, p. 81.
- Abstract of proceedings of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London [Eng.]: South London Entomological and Natural History Society, [1885-1896] url p. 25.
- Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Helsinki: Societas, 1875-1980. url p. 4.
- American seashells. With illus. by Frederick M. Bayer. New York, Van Nostrand url , p. 132, p. 133, p. 21.
- An ecological characterization of Coastal Maine (north and east of Cape Elizabeth) / Stewart I. Fefer and Patricia S. Schettig: principal investigators. Newton Corner, Mass.: Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Region, 1980. url , p. 105, p. 78, p. 80, p. 83, p. 85, p. 91, p. 93.
- An introduction to the study of fossils (plants and animals) / by Hervey Woodburn Shimer. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1921. url p. 23, p. 431, p. 433.
- An outline of the natural history of our shores, by Joseph Sinel with chapters on collecting and preserving marine specimens, methods of microscopic mounting, etc., and on the marine aquarium. London, Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1906. url p. 200, p. 206.
- An up-to-date systematic list of 3200 seashells from Greenland to Texas: translation, explanation, and gender of their names. [Brooklyn?]1954. url .
- Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 371.
- Annual report - Western Society of Malacologists. Pomona, Calif., Western Society of Malacologists. url , p. 3.
- Annual report of the Commissioners of Inland Fisheries made to the General Assembly / State of Rhode Island. Providence: The Commissioners. url p. 32.
- Annual report of the New York Zoological Society. New York: The Society, 1897- url p. 98.
- Annual report of the Regents / Albany: J.B. Lyon, State Printer, 1890-1903. url p. 22, p. 28, p. 69, p. 70.
- Arctic geography and ethnology. A selection of papers on Arctic geography and ethnology. Reprinted, and presented to the Arctic expedition of 1875, by the president, council, and fellows of the Royal Geographical Society. London: J. Murray, 1875. url p. 73, p. 74.
- Biology of the seas of the U.S.S.R. Translated by S. Botcharskaya. New York, Interscience Publishers url p. 112, p. 204, p. 205, p. 214, p. 292.
- Biology: concepts and applications / Cecie Starr. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub., c1997. url p. 656.
- Birds and nature. Chicago, Ill.: A.W. Mumford, Publisher, 1900-1907. url p. 138.
- Botanisk tidsskrift / utgivet af den Botaniske forening i København. København: G.E.C. Gads Forlag, 1866-1981. url p. 312.
- Breviora. 1971 Cambridge, Mass.: Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, [1952- url p. 2, plate 1, page 24, p. 3.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 193, p. 244.
- Bulletin de la Station Biologique d'Arcachon. Arcachon. url p. 131.
- Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries. Washington, D.C.: Govt. Print. Off., 1905-1950. url p. 130, p. 199.
- Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. [New York: The Society], 1890-1960. url p. 295, p. 434, p. 507, p. 575, p. 647.
- Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences Los Angeles, Calif.: The Academy, 1971- url p. 69.
- Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission. Washington, The Commission, Govt. Print. Off. url p. 484.
- Bulletins of American paleontology. 68 1976 Ithaca, N.Y., Paleontological Research Institution [etc.] url p. 181, p. 51.
- By the deep sea. A popular introduction to the wild life of the British shores, by Edward Step; with 122 illustrations by P.H. Gosse [and others] London, Jarrold & Sons, 1896. url .
- California fish and game. [San Francisco, etc.]: State of California, Resources Agency, Dept. of Fish and Game. url p. 44.
- Canadian fisherman. Gardenvale, Que. [etc.]National Business Publications [etc.] url p. 1049.
- Carnegie Institution of Washington publication. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902- url , p. 383.
- Carotenoids, by Paul Karrer and Ernst Jucker. Translated and rev. by Ernest A. Braude. New York, Elsevier Pub. Co., 1950. url p. 369, p. 85.
- Carotenoids, their comparative biochemistry. New York, Chemical Pub. Co., 1954. url p. 182.
- Cassell's natural history. Ed. by P. Martin Duncan. .. London [etc]Cassell & Company, Limited, 1896. url .
- Catalogue of marine shells in Lorenzo G. Yates' collection, Santa Barbara, Cal. Santa Barbara, Cal., 1886. url p. 14, p. 50.
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 838.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 838.
- Catalogue of the Doane collection of shells, presented by Mrs. Rose Delano to the Marion natural history society. s.n., The Wareham press, 19--? url p. 41.
- Catalogue of the books, manuscripts, maps and drawings in the British Museum (Natural History) London: BM(NH), 1903-1940. url p. 1458.
- Catalogue of the collections in the museums of the University of North Dakota / prepared by Henry Montgomery. Grand Forks: [Plaindealer Book and Job Rooms]1888. url p. 33.
- Catalogue of the economic mollusca and the apparatus and appliances used in their capture and preparation for market: exhibited by the United States National Museum / by Francis Winslow. Washington: G.P.O., 1883. url p. 60.
- Check list of the Mollusca of New York / Elizabeth J. Letson. Albany: New York State Education Dept., 1905. url p. 14.
- Chemical embryology. New York:The MacMillan Co., 1931. url p. 489.
- Conference on the aspects of paleontology [by J.M. Clarke and others] First annual meeting, Cambridge, Mass., December 29, 1909. .. Washington, D.C., 1910. url p. 15.
- Contributions to Canadian biology. Toronto, Biological Board of Canada. url p. 278.
- Contributions. Providence, R. I. url p. 577.
- Culture methods for invertebrate animals; a compendium prepared cooperatively by American zoologists under the direction of a committee from Section F of the American Association for the Advancement of Science [by] Paul S. Galtsoff, Frank E. New York, Dover Publications url p. 264.
- Current bibliography for aquatic sciences and fisheries. London, Taylor & Francis ltd. url p. 116, p. 129, p. 149, p. 153, p. 170, p. 192, p. 214, p. 220, p. 456, p. 536, p. 583, p. 623, p. 817.
- Current bibliography for fisheries science. Rome, Biology Branch, Fisheries Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. url p. 122.
- Darwinism to-day a discussion of present-day scientific criticism of the Darwinian selection theories: together with a brief account of the principal other proposed auxillary and alternative theories of species-formi by Vernon L. Kellogg. .. London: G. Bell; 1907. url p. 56.
- Darwinism to-day; a discussion of present-day scientific criticism of the Darwinian selection theories, together with a brief account of the principal other proposed auxiliary and alternative theories of species-formin by Vernon L. Kellogg. .. New York, H. Holt and company, 1907. url p. 56.
- Distribution and origin of life in America, by Robert Francis Scharff New York, Macmillan, 1912 url p. 485.
- East coast marine shells: descriptions of shore mollusks together with many living below tide mark, from Maine to Texas inclusive, especially Florida, with more than one thousand drawings and photographs / by Maxwell Smith. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Edwards Brothers, 1951, [c1937] url p. 224, p. 99.
- East coast marine shells; descriptions of shore mollusks together with many living below tide mark, from Maine to Texas inclusive, especially Florida. Ann Arbor, Mich., Edwards Brothers, Inc.[c1937] url p. 99.
- Ecological monitoring of a constructed intertidal flat at Jonesport, Me. / submitted to Regulatory Branch, New England District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; prepared by Gary L. Ray; submitted by U.S. Engineer Research and Development Center, Waterways Experiment Station, Concord, MA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New England District,  url , p. 36.
- Elementary text-book of zoology. By Dr. C. Claus, tr. and ed. by Adam Sedgwick with the assistance of F. G. Heathcote. London, W. S. Sonnenschein, 1884-85. url p. 47.
- Energy and environmental stress in aquatic systems: selected papers from a symposium held at Augusta, Georgia, November 2-4, 1977 / sponsored by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Assistant Secretary for Environment, U.S. Department of Energy, Savannah River National Environmental Resea [Washington]: Technical Information Center, U.S. Dept. of Energy; 1978. url p. 462.
- Environmental benchmark studies in Casco Bay, Portland Harbor, Maine, April 1980 / Peter F. Larsen, Anne C. Johnson, and Lee F. Doggett. Woods Hole, Mass.: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Northeast Fisheries Center; 1983. url p. 54.
- Enzyme cytology. London, Academic Press, 1967. url p. 146.
- Experimental embryology. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1909. url p. 72.
- FWS/0BS. [Washington]Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. url p. 11, p. 19.
- Fauna, flora & geology of the Clyde area, ed. by G.F. Scott Elliot, Malcolm Laurie and J. Barclay Murdoch. Glasgow, Pub. by the local committee for the meeting of the British Association, 1901. url p. 199, p. 527, p. 540.
- Fishery Board for Scotland. Scientific investigations. Edinburgh [etc.]H.M. Stationery Off. url p. 220.
- Fishery bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service: url , p. 193, p. 469, p. 479, p. 844.
- Forced movements, tropisms, and animal conduct. PhiladelphiaLippincott Co.[c1918] url p. 184, p. 188.
- Glaucus, or, The wonders of the shore / by Charles Kingsley. London; Macmillan, 1890. url p. 139.
- Guide to localities illustrating the geology, marine zoology, and botany of the vicinity of Boston. [Boston]A.A.A.S., 1898. url , , , .
- Guide to the shell and starfish galleries (Mollusca, Echinodermata, Vermes) in the Department of Zoology of the British Museum (Natural History) [London]: Printed by order of the Trustees, 1888. url p. 72.
- Half-hours at the sea-side; or, Recreations with marine objects, by Dr. J. E. Taylor. London, R. Hardwicke, 1872. url p. 199.
- Hand list of Mollusca in the Indian Museum, Calcutta by Geoffrey Nevill. Calcutta, Printed by order of the trustees, 1878-1884. url p. 135.
- Hand list of mollusca in the Indian Museum, Calcutta / by Geoffrey Nevill. Calcutta: [s.n.], 1878-1884 [i.e., 1885] url p. 135.
- Handbook for Southport: medical and general, with copious notices of the natural history of the district / edited by Edward Day McNicoll. Southport [Eng.]: R. Johnson, 1883. url p. 126.
- Heligoland as an ornithological observatory; the result of fifty years' experience, Edinburgh, D. Douglas, 1895. url p. 442.
- Hydrographical and biological investigations in Norwegian fiords. By O. Nordgaard. The protist plankton and the diatoms in bottom samples. By E. Jørgensen. With 21 plates and 10 figures in the text. Bergen, J. Grieg, 1905. url p. 179.
- International catalogue of scientific literature. LondonPublished for the International Council by the Royal Society of London1901-1920 url p. 67.
- Introduction to zoology; a guide to the study of animals, for the use of secondary schools; by Charles Benedict Davenport. .. and Gertrude Crotty Davenport. .. With three hundred and eleven illustrations. New York, Macmillan company;1900. url p. 168, p. 168.
- Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft. Jena, Gustav Fischer [etc.]. url p. 391.
- Journal of conchology. London: D. Bogue. url , , , , , p. 10, p. 103, p. 104, p. 115, p. 120, p. 124, p. 148, p. 148, p. 161, p. 173, p. 179, p. 18, p. 180, p. 181, p. 196, p. 198, p. 200, p. 208, p. 227, p. 233, p. 234, p. 236, p. 24, p. 269, p. 274, p. 281, p. 287, p. 295, p. 296, p. 305, p. 317, p. 333, p. 341, p. 357, p. 365, p. 368, p. 370, p. 372, p. 383, p. 40, p. 44, p. 55, p. 63, p. 91, p. 93.
- Journal of morphology. Boston: Ginn & Co., [1887-1924] url p. 156.
- Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Cambridge [etc.]Cambridge University Press [etc.] url p. 109, p. 118, p. 121, p. 166, p. 210, p. 225, p. 270, p. 300, p. 301, p. 302, p. 303, p. 305, p. 306, p. 308, p. 309, p. 501, p. 6, p. 669, p. 9.
- Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Oxford [etc.]Royal Microscopical Society. url p. 313, p. 315, p. 399, p. 489, p. 562.
- Keys to marine invertebrates of the Woods Hole region: a manual for the identification of the more common marine invertebrates / compiled by Ralph I. Smith with the assistance of many other contributors. Woods Hole, Mass.: Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biological Laboratory, 1964. url p. 137, p. 140, p. 142.
- L.M.B.C. memoirs on typical British marine plants and animals. Liverpool: Liverpool Marine Biology Committee, 1899-1975. url p. 10.
- Life and letters of Sir Joseph Prestwich. .. Written and ed. by his wife Edinburgh, W. Blackwood and Sons, 1899 url p. 135, p. 163.
- Life by the seashore: an introduction to natural history / by Marion Newbigin London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1910 url p. 238, p. 246, p. 341.
- Light and the behavior of organisms, by S.O. Mast. .. New York, J. Wiley & Sons; [etc., etc.]1911. url p. 247, p. 286.
- List of marine invertebrata from the New England Coast: distributed by the U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Washington: The Institution, 1881 url p. 230.
- List of marine invertebrates from the New England coast, distributed by the United States National Museum. prepared by Richard Rathbun. Washington: United States National Museum, 1882 url p. 305.
- List of marine invertebrates, mainly from the New England coast, distributed by the United States National Museum. prepared by Richard Rathbun. Washington: United States National Museum, 1882 url p. 301.
- Manual of conchology, structural and systematic: with illustrations of the species / by George W. Tryon, Jr. Philadelphia: Published by the Author, Academy of Natural Sciences, 1879-1898. url p. 174, p. 229, p. 229, p. 266, p. 266, p. 266, p. 312, p. 312, p. 312, p. 464, p. 464, p. 464, p. 464.
- Marine and estuarine environments, organisms, and geology of the Cape Cod region; an indexed bibliography, 1665-1965 [by] Anne E. Yentsch [and others. Woods Hole, Mass., Systematics Ecology Program, Marine Biological Laboratory[c1966] url , p. 109, p. 119, p. 143, p. 16, p. 21, p. 23, p. 24, p. 70, p. 86.
- Marine zoology. London, Archibald Constable & Company Limited1905? url p. 99.
- Mark anniversary volume; to Edward Laurens Mark, Hersey professor of anatomy and director of the zoölogical laboratory at Harvard university, in celebration of twenty-five years of successful work for the advancement of zoölo New York, H. Holt and company, 1903. url p. 114.
- Meddelelser om Grønland. København, C. A. Reitzels Forlag, 1879-1979. url p. 303.
- Memoirs and proceedings of the Manchester Literary & Philosophical Society. Manchester: The Society, 1888-1980. url p. 15.
- Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco: The Academy, 1868- url p. 26.
- Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos [by] Donald P. Costello and Catherine Henley. Woods Hole, Mass., 1971. url p. 149, p. 150.
- Monitoring the marine environment of Long Island Sound at Millstone Nuclear Power Station, Waterford, Connecticut: three operational studies, 1986-1987 / [prepared by the Environmental Laboratory staff of Northeast Utilities Service Company]. Waterford, Connecticut: Northeast Utilities,  url p. 36.
- Mussel watch worldwide literature survey - 1991 / Adriana Y. Cantillo. Rockville, Md.: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service,  url p. 139, p. 61.
- Natural history. New York: American Museum of Natural History. url p. 128.
- Natural science. London: Macmillan & Co., [1892-1899] url p. 219, p. 263.
- Natural science: a monthly review of scientific progress. London [etc.]: Macmillan and Company [etc.], [1892-1899] url p. 263, p. 98.
- Nature. London, etc., Macmillan Journals Ltd., etc. url p. 368, p. 372, p. 649.
- New York State Museum bulletin. 1905 Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1916-1944. url p. 14, p. 158, p. 97.
- Norfolk, by William A. Dutt, with special articles on the bird life, botany, entomology, geology, fishing, shooting, etc., of the county, by the Rev. R.C. Nightingale, H.D. Geldart, Claude Morley, F.E.S., F.W. London, J.M. Dent & Co., 1900. url p. 220.
- Notes on the natural history of East Finmark / by A.M. Norman. London: [s.n.], 1902-1905. url p. 355.
- Occasional papers of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, url p. 70.
- Occasional papers on mollusks. 5 1989 Cambridge, Mass.: Dept. of Mollusks, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 1945- url p. 88.
- Occurrence at Newport, R.I., of two littoral species of European shells not before recorded as American; by A.E. Verrill (book review). New Haven: S. Converse, 1880 url .
- Oceanology: biology of the ocean. M.E. Vinogradov, editor in chief; Albert L. Peabody, translator. Woods Hole, Mass.: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Northeast Fisheries Center, 1985. url p. 25, p. 480.
- Our common British fossils and where to find them: a handbook for students / by J.E. Taylor. London: Chatto and Windus, 1885. url p. 292.
- Our common British fossils, and where to find them; a handbook for students, by J. E. Taylor. London: Chatto, 1885. url p. 292.
- Our country's shells and how to know them: a guide to the British mollusca / by W.J. Gordon. .. with a coloured illustration of every species, and many original diagrams, by A. Lambert London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co.,  url p. 16.
- Oysters and disease; an account of certain observations upon the normal and pathological histology and bacteriology of the oyster and other shellfish. By W. A. Herdman and Rubert Boyce. London, George Philip & Son, 1899. url p. 51.
- Palaeontographica Americana. 6 1970 Ithaca, N.Y.: Paleontological Research Institution, url fig. 27 , p. 383.
- Palæontology, invertebrate, by Henry Woods. Cambridge [Eng.]The University press, 1909. url .
- Papers in marine biology and oceanography, dedicated to Henry Bryant Bigelow by his former students and associates on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1955. London, Pergamon Press, 1955. url p. 180, p. 182, p. 194.
- Pre-historic times, as illustrated by ancient remains and the manners and customs of modern savages, by Sir John Lubbock, bart. New York, D. Appleton and company, 1892. url p. 235.
- Prehistoric fishing in Europe and North America. By Charles Rau. Washington City, Smithsonian Institution, 1884. url p. 36, p. 8.
- Principles of animal ecology, by W. C. Allee [and others] Philadelphia, Saunders Co., 1949. url p. 455.
- Principles of stratigraphy / by Amadeus W. Grabau. New York: A.G. Seiler and company, 1913. url p. 1041, p. 90.
- Proceedings - Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. Staten Island, N.Y., Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. url , p. 27.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 547, p. 626, p. 627, p. 636.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 141.
- Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. Sydney, Linnean Society of New South Wales. url p. 104, p. 205, p. 206, p. 67, p. 70.
- Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London. London, Dulau. url p. 109, p. 113, p. 180, p. 187, p. 188, p. 282, p. 95.
- Proceedings of the National Shellfisheries Association. Plymouth, Mass., Published for the National Shellfisheries Association by MPG Communications. url p. 63, p. 73, p. 75, p. 77, p. 80.
- Proceedings of the Natural History Society of Glasgow. Glasgow, Natural History Society of Glasgow. url p. 160, p. 320, p. 340, p. 35.
- Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales. Mosman, New South Wales [etc.]The Society. url p. 64.
- Proceedings of the United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.] url p. 126, p. 213, p. 230, p. 240, p. 301, p. 305, p. 449, p. 459, p. 461, p. 506, p. 515, p. 564.
- Proceedings of the section of sciences / Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Johannes Müller, [1899-1937]. url p. 242.
- Publications in biological oceanography / Ottawa: The Museum, 1970-1982. url p. 16.
- Quarterly journal of conchology. London, D. Bogue. url p. 332, p. 91.
- Random notes on natural history. Providence, R. I.: Southwick & Jencks, [1884-1886] url p. 39.
- Reliquiae aquitanicae: being contributions to the archaeology and palaeontology of Pèrigord and the adjoining provinces of Southern France / ed. by Thomas Rupert Jones, 1865-75. London: Williams, 1875. url p. 70, p. 92.
- Report of the Commissioner for. .. / United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Washington: G.P.O., 1874-1905. url p. 34.
- Report of the United States Commissioner of Fisheries for the fiscal year. .. with appendixes Washington: G.P.O., 1914- url p. 197, p. 492.
- Report on the Invertebrata of Massachusetts / published agreeably to an order of the Legislature. Boston: Wright and Potter, state printers, 1870. url p. 308.
- Report on the Lancashire sea-fisheries laboratory at the University of Liverpool, and the Sea-fish hatchery at Piel. .. Liverpool: C. Tinling & Co., 1893- url p. 64.
- Report upon the fauna of Liverpool Bay and the neighboring seas, written by members of the Liverpool Marine Biology Committee, and edited by W.A. Herdman. London, Longmans, Green, 1886-1900. url p. 21.
- Report. New York url p. 61.
- Science progress. London: John Murray, 1916- url p. 120.
- Science. New York, N.Y.: [s.n.]1880- url p. 198.
- Sea and inland fisheries: report. DublinStationery Off. url p. 65, p. 70.
- Sea-shore life; The invertebrates of the New York coast, by Alfred Goldsborough Mayer. New York: The New York zoological society, 1905. url p. 176, p. 179.
- Sea-shore life; the invertebrates of the New York coast and the adjacent coast region, by Alfred Goldsborough Mayer. [New York]A. S. Barnes, 1905. url p. 176, p. 179.
- Shells as evidence of the migration of early culture by J. Wilfrid Jackson. .. London, Longmans, Green & Co., 1917. url p. 15.
- Shells of land and water; a familiar introduction to the study of the mollusks. Chicago, A.W. Mumford, 1903. url p. 86, p. 99.
- Some North American fish trematodes, Urbana, Ill., c1926 url p. 116, p. 137.
- Special scientific report--wildlife / U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service, 1949- url p. 227, p. 258, p. 301, p. 302.
- Special scientific report. Seattle, National Marine Fisheries Service; for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1949-1971. url p. 12, p. 16, p. 17.
- Standard values in nutrition and metabolism, being the second fascicle of a handbook of biological data. Prepared under the direction of the Committee on the Handbok of Biological Data, American Institute of Biological Sciences, National Research Council. Philadelphia, Saunders url p. 374.
- Statistical methods, By C.B. Davenport. .. New York, J. Wiley, 1904. url p. 67, p. 86.
- Statistical methods: by C.B. Davenport. New York: J. Wiley, 1914. url p. 67, p. 86.
- Structural and systematic conchology: an introduction to the study of the Mollusca... By George W. Tryon, jr.... Philadelphia: The author, 1882-84. url p. 110, p. 308, p. 414.
- Syllogeus. Ottawa, National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1972-1995. url p. 16, p. 73.
- Technical publication / New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University. Syracuse, N.Y.: The College, 1914- url p. 258.
- Texas conchologist. [Houston, Houston Conchology Society], 1964- url , p. 4.
- Text-book of palaeontology / by Karl A. von Zittel; translated and edited by Charles R. Eastman. London; Macmillan, 1900-1902. url p. 459.
- The Annals of Scottish natural history. Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1892-1911. url p. 219, p. 23.
- The Biochemical journal. London [etc.]Cambridge University Press. url p. 391, p. 521.
- The Biological bulletin. Woods Hole, Mass.: Marine Biological Laboratory, url , , , , , , , , , , , , p. 105, p. 106, p. 112, p. 127, p. 136, p. 137, p. 139, p. 141, p. 156, p. 164, p. 166, p. 174, p. 175, p. 179, p. 182, p. 183, p. 185, p. 185, p. 187, p. 188, p. 192, p. 193, p. 194, p. 195, p. 197, p. 197, p. 21, p. 218, p. 22, p. 220, p. 221, p. 221, p. 222, p. 225, p. 229, p. 229, p. 231, p. 232, p. 244, p. 245, p. 257, p. 258, p. 259, p. 259, p. 259, p. 260, p. 261, p. 261, p. 262, p. 263, p. 263, p. 263, p. 264, p. 264, p. 265, p. 265, p. 268, p. 269, p. 269, p. 27, p. 272, p. 301, p. 301, p. 305, p. 308, p. 31, p. 310, p. 312, p. 316, p. 319, p. 321, p. 323, p. 324, p. 324, p. 326, p. 326, p. 327, p. 327, p. 328, p. 329, p. 330, p. 330, p. 330, p. 330, p. 331, p. 331, p. 331, p. 332, p. 332, p. 332, p. 333, p. 334, p. 334, p. 335, p. 336, p. 336, p. 337, p. 340, p. 340, p. 343, p. 344, p. 345, p. 346, p. 347, p. 348, p. 351, p. 356, p. 359, p. 359, p. 369, p. 370, p. 373, p. 379, p. 381, p. 385, p. 386, p. 386, p. 388, p. 388, p. 389, p. 389, p. 390, p. 391, p. 392, p. 393, p. 394, p. 395, p. 406, p. 406, p. 410, p. 426, p. 427, p. 439, p. 442, p. 444, p. 446, p. 449, p. 452, p. 455, p. 455, p. 46, p. 460, p. 462, p. 463, p. 471, p. 480, p. 481, p. 491, p. 504, p. 512, p. 513, p. 513, p. 518, p. 533, p. 535, p. 536, p. 537, p. 543, p. 543, p. 544, p. 545, p. 547, p. 549, p. 551, p. 552, p. 552, p. 552, p. 553, p. 554, p. 555, p. 556, p. 557, p. 557, p. 558, p. 57, p. 58, p. 59, p. 591, p. 595, p. 60, p. 61, p. 62, p. 63, p. 64, p. 640, p. 644, p. 65, p. 67, p. 69, p. 703, p. 703, p. 704, p. 705, p. 706, p. 707, p. 708, p. 71, p. 71, p. 71, p. 711, p. 712, p. 728, p. 73, p. 75, p. 75, p. 76, p. 77, p. 77, p. 78, p. 79, p. 81, p. 82, p. 824, p. 83, p. 83, p. 85, p. 85, p. 88, p. 88, p. 89, p. 90, p. 93, p. 98.
- The British nature book; a complete handbook and guide to British nature study, embracing the mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, insects, plants, etc., in the United Kingdom, by S.N. Sedgwick. .. Edinburgh, T.C. & E.C. Jack, Ltd., 1922. url p. 308.
- The Bulletin of zoological nomenclature. London, International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. url p. 234.
- The Cambridge natural history, ed. by S.F. Harmer. .. and A.E. Shipley. .. London, Macmillan and co., limited;1895-1909 url p. 130, p. 130, p. 185, p. 185, p. 20, p. 20, p. 215, p. 215, p. 215, p. 251, p. 251, p. 252, p. 252, p. 365, p. 365, p. 365, p. 374, p. 374, p. 374.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. 53 1939 Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url griffiths , , p. 113, p. 180, p. 237, p. 253, p. 309, p. 412, p. 414, p. 522, p. 523, p. 524, p. 631, p. 633, p. 635, p. 637, p. 638, p. 644, p. 65, p. 751.
- The Canadian naturalist and quarterly journal of science: with proceedings of the Natural History Society of Montreal. Montreal: Dawson, 1869-1883. url p. 88.
- The Collecting net. Woods Hole, Mass., The Collecting net url p. 268.
- The Conchologist. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1891-1893. url p. 3.
- The Conchologists' exchange. Philadelphia, Wm. D. Averell. url p. 21, p. 24, p. 41.
- The Irish naturalist. Dublin: Eason & Son, Ltd., 1892- url p. 118, p. 248.
- The Journal of animal behavior. Albany, N.Y.: Henry Holt and Co., [1911-1917?] url .
- The Journal of comparative neurology and psychology. Granville, Ohio: Editorial Office, Denison University, url p. 234.
- The Journal of experimental zoology. [New York, etc.]Wiley-Liss [etc.] url p. 611.
- The Labrador coast. A journal of two summer cruises to that region. New York: N.D.C. Hodges, 1891. url .
- The Labrador coast. New York, N. D. C. Hodges: [etc., etc.]1891. url p. 377.
- The Mollusca of Dorsetshire (marine, estuarine, freshwater, and land) and the Brachiopoda. Dorchester [Eng.]"Dorset County Chronicle" Print. Works, 1898. url , .
- The Mollusca of Dorsetshire: (marine, estuarine, freshwater, and land) and the Brachiopoda / By John Clavell Mansel-Pleydell. Dorchester: "Dorset county chronicle" printing works, 1898. url , p. 40.
- The Mollusca of the Firth of Clyde, being a catalogue of recent marine species found in that estuary. By Alfred Brown. .. Glasgow, Hugh Hopkins, 1878. url p. 61.
- The Naturalist. 1898 [Doncaster: Yorkshire Naturalists' Union], 1874- url p. 111, p. 197, p. 294, p. 351.
- The Nautilus. Melbourne, Fla., etc., American Malacologists, inc., etc. url , , , , , , , , , p. 1, p. 10, p. 102, p. 108, p. 108, p. 109, p. 11, p. 113, p. 117, p. 119, p. 119, p. 120, p. 121, p. 126, p. 129, p. 130, p. 130, p. 137, p. 137, p. 138, p. 138, p. 139, p. 140, p. 140, p. 142, p. 143, p. 144, p. 144, p. 15, p. 16, p. 176, p. 178, p. 28, p. 28, p. 32, p. 38, p. 39, p. 4, p. 52, p. 52, p. 53, p. 53, p. 55, p. 56, p. 57, p. 6, p. 6, p. 6, p. 62, p. 67, p. 68, p. 7, p. 7, p. 70, p. 71, p. 73, p. 74, p. 75, p. 76, p. 76, p. 8, p. 8, p. 83, p. 86, p. 87, p. 89, p. 9, p. 91, p. 91, p. 91, p. 95, p. 96, p. 97, p. 98.
- The Proceedings and transactions of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science. Halifax, Nova Scotian Institute of Science. url , p. 156, p. 169, p. 173.
- The Victoria history of the county of Suffolk / edited by William Page. Folkestone [Kent]: Dawson for the University of London, Institute of Historical Research, 1907-1975. url p. 16.
- The Victorian naturalist. [Melbourne]Field Naturalists Club of Victoria. url p. 97.
- The animal ecology of the Cold Spring sand spit, with remarks on the theory of adaptation, by C.B. Davenport. .. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1903. url p. 14.
- The animal mind; a text-book of comparative psychology, New York, The Macmillan company, 1917. url p. 348.
- The aquarium: its inhabitants, structure, and management / by John Ellor Taylor. Edinburgh: John Grant, 1910. url p. 151.
- The biology of marine animals. New York, Interscience Publishers url p. 292, p. 608, p. 648, p. 695.
- The biology of the sea-shore, by F.W. Flattely. .. and C.L. Walton. .. with an introduction by J. Arthur Thomson. .. New York, The Macmillan Company url , p. 147, p. 163, p. 249, p. 257, p. 259, p. 271, p. 273, p. 280, p. 287, p. 300.
- The book of nature study, ed. by J. Bretland Farmer. .. assisted by a staff of specialists. Fully illustrated. London, Caxton publishing company[1908?]-1909. url p. 175.
- The depths of the ocean: a general account of the modern science of oceanography based largely on the scientific researches of the Norwegian steamer Michael Sars in the North Atlantic / by Sir John Murray and Dr. Johan Hjort; with contributions from Professor A. Appellöf, Professor H. H. Gran and Dr. B. Helland-Hansen. London: Macmillan, 1912. url p. 462, p. 463, p. 532, p. 800.
- The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex, New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1896. url .
- The descent of man: and selection in relation to sex / New York: P. F. Collier, 1902. url .
- The edible Mollusca of Great Britain and Ireland: With recipes for cooking them / By M. S. Lovell. 1884 London: L. Reeve & Co. url , p. 187, p. 297.
- The edible mollusks of Great Britain and Ireland: with recipes for cooking them / By M. S. Lovell. London: Reeve & co., 1867. url , p. 136, p. 195.
- The emigrations of animals from the sea. Dryden, N.Y., Sherwood Press url p. 134.
- The environmental behavior of transuranic nuclides released from water cooled nuclear power plants / prepared by V.T. Bowen; prepared for Division of Safeguards, Fuel Cycle, and Environmental Research, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Washington, D.C.: The Commission: 1981. url .
- The exploitation of natural animal populations; a symposium of the British Ecological Society, Durham, 28th-31st March 1960. Edited by E. D. Le Cren and M. W. Holdgate. New York, Wiley url p. 396, p. 399, p. 47.
- The fisheries of the Adriatic and the fish thereof: a report of the Austro-Hungarian sea-fisheries, with a detailed description of the marine fauna of the Adriatic Gulf / by G. L. Faber; with eighteen woodcut illustrations after drawings by Leo Littrow, and numerous engravings on stone. London: B. Quaritch, 1883. url p. 37.
- The geographical distribution of animals: with a study of the relations of living and extinct faunas as elucidating the past changes of the earth's surface / by Alfred Russel Wallace; in two volumes; with maps and illustrations. New York: Harper and Brothers, Publishers, 1876. url p. 510.
- The geology of Arran and the other Clyde islands with an account of the botany, natural history, and antiquities, notices of the scenery and an itinerary of the routes, by James Bryce. .. GlasgowW. Collins, sons, and company, 1872. url p. 227, p. 332, p. 335, p. 46.
- The geology of England and Wales: with notes on the physical features of the country. By Horace B. Woodward. London, G. Philip & Son, 1887. url p. 467, p. 469, p. 555.
- The haunts of life, New York, Harcourt, Brace and company[c1922] url .
- The haunts of life, being six lectures delivered at the Royal Institution, Christmas holidays, 1920-1921, London, A. Melrose Ltd., 1921. url p. 42.
- The haunts of life, by Prof. J. Arthur Thomson. .. New York, Harcourt, Brace[c1922] url p. 42.
- The invertebrate fauna of the Firth of Forth. By George Leslie and W. A. Herdman. Edinburgh, Printed by M'Farlane & Erskine, 1881. url p. 90, p. 90.
- The land birds in and around St. Andrews: including a condensed history of the British land birds, with extracts from the poets and observations and anecdotes on natural history / by George Bruce. Dundee [Scotland]: John Leng & Co., 1895. url p. 254.
- The life of the Mollusca. London, Methuen & Co. url .
- The life of the mollusca / London, Methuen & Co., 1913. url p. 151.
- The lipids, their chemistry and biochemistry. New York, Interscience Publishers, 1951-57. url p. 636, p. 995.
- The littoral marine fauna of Provincetown, Cape Cod, Massachusetts / by Richard Rathbun. Washington, D.C.: [s.n.], 1881. url p. 126.
- The lower animals; living invertebrates of the world, by Ralph Buchsbaum and Lorus J. Milne. In collaboration with Mildred Buchsbaum and Margery Milne. With photos. by Ralph Buchsbaum, and others. Line drawings by Kenneth Gosner. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday url p. 180, p. 183.
- The marine fishes and invertebrates of Loch Fyne. 2 Edinburgh, Fishery Board, 1897 url p. 119, p. 220.
- The mechanism of evolution in leptinotarsa, by William Lawrence Tower. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1918. url , p. 383.
- The mollusca of Somerset; land, freshwater, estuarine and marine, by E.W. Swanton. Taunton, Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, 1912 [i.e. 1911-12] url , , , p. 74.
- The natural history of animals: the animal life of the world in its various aspects and relations, London, The Gresham Publishing Company, 1903-04. url .
- The nature of viruses and the origin of life. [Kamakura, Shonan Hygiene Institute; sole agency: Igaku-Shoin Co.]1955. url p. 295.
- The new natural history, by Richard Lydekker. .. and R. Bowdler Sharpe, H.A. MacPherson, F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, W.R. Ogilvie Grant, C.J. Gahan, F.A. Bather, Edgar A. Smith, R.I. Pocock, M. Bernard, H. Bernard and R. Kirkpatr New York, Merrill and Baker[189-?] url p. 386.
- The new natural history. New York, Merrill, c1901. url p. 3356.
- The physical geology and geography of Great Britain: a manual of British geology / London, E. Stanford, 1878. url p. 414.
- The post-Tertiary deposits of Cambridgeshire: being the Sedgwick prize essay for 1876 / by A. J. Jukes-Browne. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell; 1878. url p. 60.
- The relation of water to the behavior of the potato beetle in a desert. .. Washington, 1918 url p. 383.
- The royal natural history / edited by Richard Lydekker; with preface by P.L. Sclater; illustrated with seventy-two coloured plates and sixteen hundred engravings by W. Kuhnert. .. [et al.]. London: F. Warne, 1893-1896. url p. 386, p. 386.
- The royal natural history. With pref. by P. L. Sclater. Illustrated with 72 col. plates and 1600 engravings. London, F. Warne, 1893-96. url p. 386.
- The sea and its living wonders; a popular account of the marvels of the deep and of the progress of maritime discovery from the earliest ages to the present time, by Dr. G. Hartwig. London, Longmans, Green, and co., 1892. url p. 411.
- The sea shore, by W.S. Furneaux. .. With eight plates in colour and over three hundred illustrations in the text. London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1922. url , p. 243, p. x.
- The story of animal life / by B. Lindsay. New York: D. Appleton, 1912, c1902. url p. 105, p. 26.
- The student's handbook of stratigraphical geology. London, E. Stanford, 1912. url p. 591, p. 603, p. 648.
- The study of animal life / J. Arthur Thomson. London: J. Murray, 1892. url p. 247.
- The transactions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. Leeds [etc.] url .
- The vitamins: chemistry, physiology, pathology. Edited by W. H. Sebrell, Jr. [and] Robert S. Harris. New York, Academic Press, 1954. url p. 151.
- Transactions of the Canadian Institute. Toronto: Canadian Institute. url p. 285.
- Transactions of the Edinburgh Field Naturalists' and Microscopical Society. [Edinburgh]: The Club, 1891- url p. 379.
- Transactions of the Edinburgh Naturalists' Field Club. Edinburgh: The Club, 1886. url p. 12, p. 12, p. 13.
- Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Newcastle-upon-Tyne [et al.]F. & W. Dodsworth [et al.]1865/67-1973. url p. 148, p. 438, p. 450.
- Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 7 1933 [San Diego]: The Society, 1905-1989. url p. 311, p. 312, p. 478.
- Trematodes of the Pacific Northwest, an annotated catalog [by] Ivan Pratt [and] James E. McCauley. Corvallis, Oregon State University Press url p. 110, p. 36.
- Tulane studies in zoology. 9 1961 New Orleans: Tulane University, 1953-1968. url p. 71.
- Variation in animals and plants, by H.M. Vernon. .. New York, H. Holt and company, 1902. url p. 214.
- Zoologiska bidrag från Uppsala. Stockholm [etc.]Almqvist & Wiksells. url p. 167.
- Zoology for high schools and colleges / New York: H. Holt and Company, 1895. url .
- Zoology: for students and general readers / New York: Henry Holt, 1879. url , .
- Zoölogical bulletin. Boston, Ginn & Co. url , , , , , , , , p. 247, p. 248, p. 259.
- [A biological survey of the waters of Woods Hole and vicinity. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1913] url p. 199.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 17, 2007:
- Academy of Natural Sciences, Academy of Natural Sciences Malacology Database
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, Academy of Natural Sciences OBIS Mollusc Database
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, Bay of Fundy Species List
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, Biogeography Scheldt Estuary
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, EPA'S EMAP Database
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, Historical quantitative benthos grab samples from the Southern Baltic Sea
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, Histroical benthic dredge samples from the southern baltic and the North Sea
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, MICROBIS database
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, Taxonomic Information Sytem for the Belgian coastal area
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, iziko South African Museum - Mollusc Collection
- International Census of Marine Microbes, MICROBIS database
- NLBIF, Limnodata
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Niv
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Bugs
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Invertebrates
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland - Mollusc
- data for Great Britain and Ireland
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Marine Biological Association - Marine Life Survey Data
- collated by MarLIN
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Marine Biological Association - Marine survey data
- held by MarLIN.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2683240
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-70419
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2279155
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 70419
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 506437