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Common Names in Albanian:
Common Names in Armenian:
[tkhakapuyt Voror ]
Common Names in Asturian:
Common Names in Azerbaijani:
Common Names in Basque:
Gavina Cendrosa, Kaio Mokohoria
Common Names in Breton:
Ar Gouelan Louet
Common Names in Catalan:
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in Cornish:
Common Names in Croatian:
Common Names in Czech:
Racek Bou, Racek Bourn
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Europese Stormmeeuw, Stormmeeuw
Common Names in English:
Common Gull, Common Kamchatka Gull, Kamchatka gull, Mew Gull, sea mew, short-billed gull
Common Names in Esperanto:
Common Names in Estonian:
Common Names in Faroese:
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Go?land cendr?, Go, goÃ©land cendrÃ©, goéland cendré
Common Names in Gaelic, Irish:
Common Names in Galician:
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hebrew:
Common Names in Hungarian:
Common Names in Icelandic:
Common Names in Irish:
Common Names in Italian:
Gavina, Gavina Eurasiatica
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Latin:
Common Names in Latvian:
Common Names in Lithuanian:
Aliaskinis Kiras, Paprastasis Kiras
Common Names in Macedonian:
Common Names in Maltese:
Common Names in Manx:
Foillan Bane, Foillan Vane
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Polish:
Mewa Delawarska, Mewa Pospolita
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Romanian:
Common Names in Romansh:
Muetta Da Tschendra
Common Names in Russian:
Sizaya Chayka, Сизая чайка, Чайка сизая
Common Names in Sardinian:
Common Names in Scots:
Common Names in Serbian:
Common Names in Slovak:
Common Names in Slovenian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Gaviota Blanca, Gaviota cana
Common Names in Spanish (Mexico):
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Turkish:
Common Names in Valencian:
Common Names in Welsh:
Gwylan Y Gweunydd
Adult : Head : white Face : Eye Color: dark Bill: yellow with greenish tint Size: small Neck: white Body: Breast: white Upperparts: white Legs : Foot Color: greenish yellow Leg Color: greenish yellow.
alternate: Bright yellow bill · Dull
Dark eye · White head
, neck, breast, and belly · Medium
gray back and upperwings · White tertial crescent ·
Black primaries with white tips
and white line
dividing black and
gray · White tail · European birds differ in details
of wingtip pattern
Adult basic: Like adult alternate but brown smudges about head
Juvenile : Black bill quickly developing pale base · Dark brown plumage
First-year: Pink bill with black tip · Pink or gray legs · White head, neck and upper breast streaked with brown · Belly brown · Medium gray back · Upperwing coverts dull brown · Medium gray secondaries · Black primaries · Dark tail (European birds have white tails with sharp black terminal bands )
Second-year: Like adult basic but often with black-tipped yellow bill, mostly dark primaries and partial tail band
About 14 to 18 inches long, with a wingspan of 42 to 43 inches. Adults weigh about 15.2 ounces .
Vegetation: freshwater marshes, coastal waters, coastal sand beaches and mudflats • Sensitivity to Disturbance: Medium
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,827 meters (0 to 12,556 feet).
Behaviour This species is fully migratory1.
from May onwards in solitary pairs or in single- and mixed-species
colonies of up to 300 pairs1, 3 or more (e.g.
pairs in Baltic region)4. Outside of the breeding
the species remains gregarious
in flocks of up to
or more individuals during the winter, flock sizes depending
upon the habitat
and conditions4. Habitat Breeding
The species breeds along the coast1, 2, 4 and inland1,
2, 3, 4 in a variety of sites not necessarily close to
wetlands1. On the coast it nests
on grassy and
rocky cliff-ledges1, 4, grassy slopes2,
, islands and stacks1, 2,
4, and on sand
and shingle beaches, banks and dunes1,
4 amongst tide-wrack or flood debris4.
Inland the species nests on small islands in freshwater
lakes3, shingle bars
or small islets in streams
or rivers2, islets, artificial structures and shores
of artificial waterbodies with short, sparse vegetation6,
and on bogs1, 4, marshes1, meadows1
or heather moorland near small pools2, 4
or lakes4. After the young fledge
the species often
disperses to coasts, tidal
estuaries, agricultural land
4. Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season
occupies similar habitats to when it is breeding, although it may
occur more frequently along the coast during this period4
on estuaries with low salinities, sandy beaches and estuarine
Diet Its diet
consists of earthworms, insects, aquatic
invertebrates1 (e.g. planktonic
crayfish and molluscs3) and small fish1.
During the spring
the species will also take agricultural grain1
and often scavanges7. Breeding site The
nest is a shallow cup
of vegetation placed on grass, rock, sand,
shingle, earth or floating and marshy
in a variety of coastal and inland locations1, 2, 3, 4.
The species may also nest off the ground
on artificial structures,
in nest-boxes and in trees1, 2. Management
The species may benefit from the removal of introduced
such as American mink Neovison vison from small breeding islands5,
and has been known to nest on artificial rafts intended to encourage
other species (e.g. Common Tern Sterna hirundo) to breed7.
List of Habitats:
- 4 Grassland
- 4.4 Grassland - Temperate
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps , Fens , Peatlands
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.1 Marine Neritic - Pelagic
- 9.2 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
- 9.3 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel
- 9.4 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
- 9.5 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy-Mud
- 9.7 Marine Neritic - Macroalgal/Kelp
- 9.9 Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
- 9.10 Marine Neritic - Estuaries
- 12 Marine Intertidal
- 12.1 Marine Intertidal - Rocky Shoreline
- 12.2 Marine Intertidal - Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits , Etc
- 12.3 Marine Intertidal - Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches
- 12.4 Marine Intertidal - Mud Flats and Salt Flats
- 12.6 Marine Intertidal - Tidepools
- 13 Marine Coastal/Supratidal
- 13.1 Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands
- 14 Artificial/Terrestrial
- 14.2 Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
- 15 Artificial/Aquatic & Marine
- 15.1 Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) [more info]
Mostly: Aquatic Invertebrates Fish Carrion
- Clutch Size: 3
- Length of Incubation : 24-26 days
- Days to Fledge : 30-32
- Number of Broods: 1
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Huxley, 1867
- Huxley, 1867
- Suborder: Lari () - Sharpe, 1891
- Order: Charadriiformes () - Huxley, 1867
- Superorder: Charadriimorphae () - Huxley, 1867
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 24-Jun-1996
Ring-Billed Gull, California Gull
Members of the genus Larus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 83 species and subspecies in this genus:
L. argentatus (Herring Gull) · L. argentatus argentatus (Herring Gull) · L. armenicus (Armenian Gull) · L. atlanticus (OlrogÌs Gull) · L. atricilla (Laughing Gull) · L. atricilla atricilla (Laughing Gull) · L. audouinii (AudouinÌs Gull) · L. belcheri (Band Tailed Gull) · L. belcheri belcheri (Band-Tailed Gull) · L. brachyrhynchus (Mew Gull) · L. brevirostris (Red-Legged Kittiwake) · L. brunnicephalus (Indian Black-Headed Gull) · L. bulleri (Black-Billed Gull) · L. cachinnans (Caspian Gull) · L. californicus (Californian Gull) · L. californicus albertaensis (Light-Mantled California Gull) · L. californicus californicus (Dark-Mantled California Gull) · L. canus (Common Kamchatka Gull) · (Mew Gull) · L. canus canus (Mew Gull) · L. canus heinei (Mew Gull) · (Eastern Common Gull) · L. cirrocephalus (Grey-Hooded Gull) · L. cirrocephalus cirrocephalus (Gray-Headed Gull) · L. crassirostris (Black-Tailed Gull) · L. delawarensis (Ring-Bill Gull) · L. dominicanus (Southern Black-Backed Gull) · L. dominicanus dominicanus (Southern Black-Backed Gull) · L. eburnea (Ivory Gull) · L. fuliginosus (Dusky Gull) · L. furcatus (Swallow-Tailed Gull) · L. fuscus (Lesser Black-Backed Gull) · L. fuscus fuscus (Lesser Black-Backed Gull) · L. fuscus graellsii (Lesser Black-Backed Gull) · L. genei (Slender-Billed Gull) · L. glaucescens (Glaucous-Winged Gull) · L. glaucoides (White-Winged Gull) · L. glaucoides glaucoides (Iceland Gull) · L. glaucoides kumlieni (Iceland Gull) · L. glaucoides thayeri (Iceland Gull) · L. hartlaubii (Hartlaub's Gull) · (White-Headed Gull) · L. hemprichii (Hemprich's Gull) · L. hyperboreus (White-Winged Gull) · L. hyperboreus barrovianus (Glaucous Gull) · L. hyperboreus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull) · L. ichthyaetus (Great Black-Headed Gull) · L. kumlieni (Kumlien's Gull) · L. leucophthalmus (White-Eyed Gull) · L. livens (Yellow-Footed Gull) · L. maculipennis (Brown-Hooded Gull) · L. marinus (Greater Black-Backed Gull) · L. melanocephalus (Mediterranean Gull) · L. michahellis (Yellow-Legged Gull) · L. minutus (Little Gull) · L. modestus (Grey Gull) · L. novaehollandiae (Silver Gull) · L. novaehollandiae novaehollandiae (Silver Gull) · L. occidentalis (Wyman's Gull) · L. occidentalis livens (Western Gull) · L. occidentalis occidentalis (Western Gull) · L. occidentalis wymani (Western Gull) · L. pacificus (Large-Billed Gull) · L. pacificus pacificus (Pacific Gull) · L. philadelphia (Bonaparte's Rosy Gull) · L. pipixcan (Francolin's Rosy Gull) · L. relictus (Relict Gull) · L. ridibundus (Common Black-Headed Gull) · L. ridibundus ridibundus (Black-Headed Gull) · L. rosea (Ross' Gull) · L. sabini (Sabine's Gull) · L. sabini sabina (Sabine's Gull) · L. sabini woznesenskii (Sabine's Gull) · L. saundersi (Chinese Black-Headed Gull) · L. schistisagus (Slaty-Backed Gull) · L. scopulinus (Red-Billed Gull) · L. scoresbii (Magellan Gull) · L. serranus (Andean Gull) · L. thayeri (Iceland Gull) · L. tridactyla (Black-Legged Kittiwake) · L. tridactyla pollicaris (Black-Legged Kittiwake) · L. tridactyla tridactyla (Black-Legged Kittiwake) · L. vetula (Cape Gull)
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- The birds of Washington; a complete, scientific and popular account of the 372 species of birds found in the state, by William Leon Dawson, assisted by John Hooper Bowles. Illustrated by more than 300 original half-tones of birds in life, nests, eggs, and favorite haunts, from photographs by the author and others, Seattle: The Occidental Pub. Co., 1909. url p. 983.
- The birds of Yorkshire: being a historical account of the avi-fauna of the county / by T. H. Nelson; with the co-operation of W. Eagle Clarke and F. Boyes. London: A. Brown, 1907. url p. 675.
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- The fauna of Shropshire, being an account of all the mammals, birds, reptiles & fishes found in the county of Salop. With an introduction dealing with the physical features of the county, a copious index, a chapter on the pri Illustrated by photographic plates and portraits. By H. Edward Forrest. Shrewsbury, L. Wilding [etc. etc.]1899. url p. 169.
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- BirdLife International 2009. Larus canus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 01February2012.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 03, 2007:
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, North West Territories and Nunavut Bird Checklist, Canada
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Birds
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Royal British Columbia Museum
- New Brunswick Museum, NBM birds
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Joint Nature Conservation Committee - Seabird 2000
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8323
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-176834
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481685
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 176832
- IUCN ID: 218200
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNNM03090
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 7575
- Mean = 46.240 meters (151.706 feet), Standard Deviation = 341.040 based on 2,104 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- BirdLife International 2009. Larus canus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 February 2012. [back]