Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in English:
Common Names in French:
Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Boquinegro, Boquinete, Capit, Doncella de pluma, Jaqueton blanco, Pargo gallo, Pargo pluma, Pez perro
Common Names in Wayuu:
Typically found in water with a depth of 0 to -4,699 meters (0 to -15,417 feet).
Lachnolaimus maximus is found on coral
reefs at 3-40 m
especially sandy outer reef slopes
are most common in
shallow seagrass, and inshore
It is a monadric protogynous hermaphrodite (McBride and Johnson 2007) with a very slow rate of sex change (several months that occurs post spawning). It has an extended spawning season from January to May. In Florida, females attain sexual maturity at two years 26.0 cm (FL ), sexual transition at three to five years but recorded in individuals up to 13 years. Reproductive aggregations have been observed in Los Roques (J.H. Choat pers. comm. 2008).
There is considerable variation in growth and age structure over the geographic range of this species. The most detailed account (McBride and Richardson 2007) compared growth and age structure of populations from the eastern Gulf of Mexico and southern Florida (Easten Gulf of Mexico - max . age 23 years; max. size 82.4 cm (FL); von Bertalanffy Growth Function Linf 91.7 cm; k .014; mortality rate 0.35, and South Florida - max. age 13 years; Max size 62.2 cm (FL); von Bertalanffy Growth Function Linf 42.8 cm; k .045 mortality rate 0.4).
A broader survey of four Atlantic locations revealed the following: (J.H. Choat pers. comm. 2008) Margarita (Venuezula) - max. age five years, max. size 35.3 cm; Los Roques (Ven) - max. age10 years, max. size 68.7 cm; Belize - max. age seven years max. size 55.4 cm; Bermuda - max. age 16 years, max. size 84.4 cm. In addition, mortality rates estimates from catch curves from Margarita and Belize (0.8, 0.7) both heavily fished , were double those from Los Roques and Bermuda where only light fishing occurs.
All populations examined for age distribution in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico, South Florida, (McBride and Richardson 2007) Belize, Los Roques, Bermuda, Margarita (J.H. Choat pers. comm. 2008) revealed that distribution was strongly skewed to the younger age classes varying from one to four years. Abundance estimates by Underwater Visual Census in Belize and Los Roques (J.H. Choat pers. comm. 2008) revealed low densities (0.81-0.95 individuals per 1,000 m2). No counts of aggregations were made..
List of Habitats :
Feeds mainly on mollusks, also crabs and sea urchins.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Huxley, 1880
- Huxley, 1880
- Order: Perciformes () -
- Superorder: Acanthopterygii ()
- Cohort: Clupeocephala ()
- Infraclass: Actinopteri ()
- Subclass: Actinopterygii ()
- Class: Osteichthyes () - Huxley, 1880
- Superclass: Osteichthyes () - Huxley, 1880
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Labrus maximus • Labrus maximus Walbaum • Labrus maximus Walbaum, 1792 • Lachnolaimus maximus
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 25-Aug-1994
Members of the genus Lachnolaimus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species and subspecies in this genus:
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A catalogue of the fishes of Bermuda, with notes on a collection made in 1905 for the Field Museum, by Tarleton H. Bean. 7 1906 Chicago, 1906. url p. 63.
- A guide to the study of fishes, New York, H. Holt, 1905. url .
- A guide to the study of fishes, by David Starr Jordan. .. New York, H. Holt and Company, 1905. url p. 388.
- A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Report presented at the eighty-ninth annual meeting, Clearwater, Fla., Sept. 16-18, 1959. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1960. url p. 34.
- A plan for an educational exhibit of fishes. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1910. url p. 1337.
- Allan Hancock Pacific expeditions. [Reports] Los Angeles, University of Southern California Press. url p. 464, p. 535.
- American fishes; a popular treatise upon the game and food fishes of North America, with especial reference to habits and methods of capture, Boston, L. C. Page[c1903]. url .
- American food and game fishes. A popular account of all the species found in America north of the equator, with keys for ready identification, life histories and methods of capture, . by David Starr Jordan...and Barton Warren Evermann...illustrated with colored plates and text drawings, and with photographs from life, by A. Radclyffe Dugmore. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page & Co., 1908. url , , p. 478, p. 558.
- American food and game fishes: A popular account of all the species found in America north of the equator, with keys of ready identification, life histories and methods of capture New York: Doubleday, Page & co., 1902. url , , , .
- American food and game fishes: a popular account of all the species found in America, north of the equator, with keys for ready identification, life histories and methods of capture, by David Starr Jordan and Barton Warren Evermann; with photos. from life by A. Radclyffe Dugmore. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1908, c1902. url , p. 478, p. 558.
- Breviora. 1982 Cambridge, Mass.: Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, [1952- url p. 23.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url .
- Bulletin from the laboratories of natural history of the State University of Iowa. Iowa City, Iowa: The University, 1888-. url .
- Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New YorkAmerican Museum of Natural History1881- url p. 191.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: BM(NH) url p. 267.
- Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries. Washington, D.C.: Govt. Print. Off., 1905-1950. url p. 536.
- Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. 46 1905 Cambridge, Mass.: The Museum, 1863- url p. 125, p. 125.
- Carnegie Institution of Washington publication. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902- url p. 18, p. 19, p. 32, p. 85, p. 90.
- Commercial fisheries review. [Washington]: National Marine Fisheries Service; [for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.] url p. 3, p. 30, p. 32, p. 6.
- Contents and index to volume 7, numbers 1 to 12, Zoological series / Charles B. Cory. 7 1912 Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1912. url p. 431.
- Coral Reefs of the World. url p. 337.
- Dean bibliography of fishes. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1971-1973. url p. 178, p. 225, p. 332, p. 733.
- Fish skulls; a study of the evolution of natural mechanisms. Laurel, Fla., E. Lundberg, 1959. url p. 256.
- Fisheries of Key West and the clam industry of southern Florida. By William C. Schroeder. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1924. url p. 29.
- Fisheries of the United States, 1908. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1911. url p. 311, p. 9.
- Fishery bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service: url p. 393, p. 853, p. 858, p. 860, p. 913, p. 918.
- Fishery bulletin. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, The Service, U.S. Govt Print. Off. url p. 337, p. 338, p. 339.
- Fishery statistics of the United States / prepared by Data Management and Statistics Division. Washington, D.C.: Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service: url p. 221, p. 233, p. 240, p. 258, p. 263, p. 314, p. 351, p. 400, p. 433, p. 435, p. 442, p. 464, p. 465, p. 498, p. 505, p. 554, p. 654.
- Fishes of the Bahama Islands / by Barton A. Bean. 1905 Baltimore: The Geographical Society of Baltimore, 1905. url p. 314.
- Fishes, New York, H. Holt and Company, 1907. url .
- Fishes, by David Starr Jordan. .. with 18 colored plates and 673 illustrations. .. New York, H. Holt and Company, 1907. url p. 599.
- Guide to the marine isopod crustaceans of the Caribbean / Brian Kensley and Marilyn Schotte. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, c1989. url p. 122, p. 300.
- In lower Florida wilds; a naturalist's observations on the life, physical geography, and geology of the more tropical part of the state, by Charles Torrey Simpson. With sixty-four illustrations and two maps. London: G. P. Putnam's sons, 1920. url , p. 312.
- Marine recreational fishery statistics survey. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Resource Statistics Division, 1980- url p. 112.
- Monogenetic trematodes: their systematics and phylogeny / by Boris E. Bychowsky; edited by William J. Hargis, Jr.; translated by Pierre C. Oustinoff. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Biological Sciences, c1961. url p. 246, p. 624.
- Monographs on the Isopods of North America / by Harriet Richards. Washington: Govt. print. off., 1905. url p. 723.
- Ontogeny and systematics of fishes: based on an international symposium dedicated to the memory of Elbert Halvor Ahlstrom / sponsored by the National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, United States Dept. of Commerce. [New York?]: American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, c1984. url p. 545, p. 713.
- Our living oceans: the first annual report on the status of U.S. living marine resources. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 1991. url p. 118.
- Pamphlets on forestry. Fish and game. [1900?- url , p. 1573, p. 1579, p. 3216, p. 3282.
- Papers from the Tortugas Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1908-42. url p. 18, p. 19, p. 85.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 205, p. 31.
- Proceedings of the United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.] url p. 176, p. 190, p. 589, p. 627, p. 666, p. 687, p. 741.
- Publication. Field Columbian Museum. Chicago, U.S.A.: The Museum, 1895-1909. url p. 431, p. 63.
- Report of the Commissioner for. .. / United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Washington: G.P.O., 1874-1905. url , p. 388, p. 411, p. 601, p. 626, p. 666, p. 690, p. 83.
- Report of the United States Commissioner of Fisheries for the fiscal year. .. with appendixes Washington: G.P.O., 1914- url p. 1060, p. 130, p. 29, p. 325, p. 343, p. 354, p. 425, p. 551, p. 61.
- Special scientific report. Seattle, National Marine Fisheries Service; for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1949-1971. url p. 13, p. 3.
- Systematic catalogue of the fishes of Tortugas, Florids with observations on color, habits, and local distribution by William H. Longley. .. Edited and completed by Smauel F. Hildebrand. .. Washington, D.C.1941 url , p. 187, p. 226, p. 25.
- Tektite 2: scientists in the sea / Ed. by J.W. Miller, J.G. VanDerwalker, and R.A. Waller. Washington: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 1971 [i.e. 1972] url p. 166.
- The Bahama Islands / edited by George Burbank Shattuck. [Baltimore]: Johns Hopkins Press; 1905. url p. 314, p. 314, p. 616.
- The Bahama Islands, London, Macmillan & co., ltd., 1905. url p. 314, p. 314.
- The Bermuda islands: an account of their scenery, climate, productions, physiography, natural history and geology, with sketches of their discovery and early history, and the changes in their flora and fauna due to man; with 38 plates and over 250 cuts in the text / by Addison E. Verrill. New Haven, Conn.: The author, 1902. url p. 290, p. 292, p. 521.
- The Journal of experimental zoology. [New York, etc.]Wiley-Liss [etc.] url p. 600.
- The anatomical record. [New York, etc.]A. R. Liss [etc.] url p. 510.
- The big game fishes of the United States, by Charles Frederick Holder. .. London, Macmillan & Co., ltd., 1903. url p. 431.
- The fish and fisheries of the coastal waters of Florida: Letter from the commissioner of fish and fisheries, transmitting in response to Senate resolution of February 15, 1895, a report of the fish and fisheries of the coastal waters of Florida. [Washington, G.P.O., 1897.] url p. 22.
- The fishes of North Carolina / Raleigh, N.C.: E.M. Uzzell, 1907. url , .
- The fishes of North Carolina, by Hugh M. Smith. Raleigh, E. M. Uzzell & co., state printers and binders, 1907. url p. 22, p. 329.
- The marine fishes of Panama. by Seth E. Meek and Samuel F. Hildebrand; Wilfred H. Osgood, editor 15 1928 Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1928 url p. 709.
- Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. New Haven: Published by the Academy, 1866- url p. 504, p. 504, p. 702, p. 702, p. 704, p. 704, p. 704, p. 899, p. 933, p. 933, p. 933.
- Tulane studies in zoology. 11 1964 New Orleans: Tulane University, 1953-1968. url p. 190.
- Where, when, and how to catch fish on the east coast of Florida, by William H. Gregg, assisted by Capt. John Gardner. Buffalo: Matthews-Northrup, 1902. url p. 126.
- World Atlas of Coral Reefs UNEP-WCMC url p. 101.
- Year book - Carnegie Institution of Washington. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington url p. 183, p. 209.
- American Fisheries Society. Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United states, Canada, and Mexico Sixth Edition. Special Publication 29.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Choat, J.H., Pollard, D. & Sadovy, Y.J. 2010. Lachnolaimus maximus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 01February2012.
- FishBase. Release date: January 5, 2010
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 01, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 7 providers.
- Huntsman, G. 1996. In IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCNRedList.org. Downloaded July 18, 2008.
- Huntsman, G. 1996. Lachnolaimus maximus. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org . Downloaded on 20 October 2006.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- Westneat, Mark (from FishBase).
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 01, 2008:
- FishBase: FishBase DiGIR Provider - Philippine Server
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: ECNASAP - East Coast North America Strategic Assessment (OBIS Canada)
- Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History: Vertebrate specimens
- Museum national d'histoire naturelle: Ichtyologie
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University: MCZ Fish Collection
- Royal Ontario Museum: Fish specimens
- Senckenberg: Collection Pisces
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 130130
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-23577
- Fishbase Species ID: 1071
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481042
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 170566
- IUCN ID: 217783
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 6196
- Cervigón, F., R. Cipriani, W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, M. Hendrickx, A.J. Lemus, R. Márquez, J.M. Poutiers, G. Robaina and B. Rodriguez (1992). Fichas FAO de identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Guía de campo de las especies comerciales ma ... [back]
- Randall, J.E. (1996). Caribbean reef fishes. Third Edition - revised and enlarged. T.F.H. Publications, Inc. Ltd., Hong Kong. 3nd ed. 368 p. [back]
- Moe, A.M. Jr. (1992). The marine aquarium handbook. Beginner to breeder. Green Turtle Publication, Florida USA. 318 p. [back]
- Mean = 414.600 meters (1,360.236 feet), Standard Deviation = 2,198.600 based on 30 observations. Ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Choat, J.H., Pollard, D. & Sadovy, Y.J. 2010. Lachnolaimus maximus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 February 2012. [back]
- Gomon, M.F. (1978). Labridae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Vol. 3. pag.var. [back]