Common Names in English:
'The Nymphalidae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Distributed worldwide, butterflies of this family
are especially rich in the tropics. They are highly variable, and there are more species in this family than in any other. Adults
vary in size from small to large, and their front legs
are reduced, unable to be used for walking. Wing
is also highly variable: some species have irregular margins
(anglewings and commas), and others have long taillike projections (daggerwings). Browns, oranges, yellows, and blacks are frequent colors, while iridescent
colors such as purples and blues are rare. Adults of some groups are the longest-lived butterflies, surviving 6-11 months. Adult feeding behavior depends on the species, where some groups primarily seek flower nectar while others only feed
, rotting fruit, dung, or animal carcasses. Males exhibit
behaviors when seeking mates. Egg-laying
varies widely, as some species lay eggs
in clustsers, others in columns, and others singly. Caterpillar appearance
and behavior vary widely. Brushfoots overwinter
as larvae or adults.
Brushfoots are the most prevalent members of the Family Nymphalinae. Distributed worldwide, this is a diverse group that contains several tribes , each with somewhat different structural and biological features. Adults of North American species are predominantly orange, brown, and black. Wing shape and mating systems are variable. Most checkerspots and crescentspots patrol for mates, while the remainder of groups exhibit either perching or perching and patrolling . Migration varies widely; some strong migrants are found in the lady butterflies, tortoiseshells, and anglewings, while other species are local in occurrence. Most species limit their host plants to a few species, but the Painted Lady has one of the widest host palettes of all butterflies. Eggs are laid singly or clustered in groups, and caterpillars be found feeding alone or communally. Brushfoots overwinter as young caterpillars or hibernating adults.
: 2 - 2 ½ inches (5.1-6.4 cm).
Wing span: 2 - 2 ½ inches (5.1-6.4 cm). (ref. 105974)
Various woodlands and gardens.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,500 meters (0 to 8,202 feet).
Males perch to await females. After mating, females lay batches of eggs on leaves or stems of stinging nettle (Urtica). Larvae feed in late spring and early summer. Adults emerge in summer and overwinter until the following spring.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Order: Lepidoptera () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Superorder: Panorpida ()
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Class: Insecta () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Insects
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Name Status: Accepted Name . Latest taxonomic scrutiny: Mertens P.P.C., Rao S., Zhou Z.H., 01-Oct-2005
Members of the genus Inachis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species and subspecies in this genus:
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- Bibliography (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) / Charles A. Bridges. Urbana, Ill.: C.A. Bridges, c1993. url p. 420.
- Biodiversity trends and threats in Europe: development and test of a species trend indicator RIVM, UNEP-WCMC url p. 44, p. 45, p. 66.
- British journal of entomology and natural history. [London]: British Entomological and Natural History Society, 1988- url p. 115, p. 121, p. 126, p. 141, p. 142, p. 145, p. 146, p. 147, p. 147, p. 178, p. 180, p. 210, p. 215, p. 22, p. 22, p. 5, p. 51, p. 52, p. 64, p. 65, p. 84, p. 95.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: BM(NH) url p. 282, p. 292.
- Keys to the insects of the European USSR. (Opredelitel nasekomykh Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR) Compiled by G. Ya. Bei-Bienko [and others] Editorial board: B.E. Bykhovskii [and others] Translated from Russian [by] Jean Salkind. Edited by O. Theodor] Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; [available from U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, Va.], 1967- url p. 713, p. 882.
- Proceedings and transactions of the British Entomological and Natural History Society. London, British Entomological and Natural History Society. url p. 104, p. 105, p. 113, p. 118, p. 119, p. 121, p. 122, p. 124, p. 132, p. 28, p. 3, p. 31, p. 34, p. 4, p. 41, p. 42, p. 43, p. 46, p. 47, p. 48, p. 5, p. 5, p. 57, p. 57, p. 6, p. 60, p. 60, p. 61, p. 62, p. 65, p. 69, p. 78, p. 8, p. 82.
- The Entomologist's record and journal of variation. s.l., s.n. url , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , p. 102, p. 105, p. 107, p. 109, p. 109, p. 11, p. 112, p. 115, p. 121, p. 122, p. 13, p. 138, p. 141, p. 144, p. 145, p. 146, p. 148, p. 155, p. 155, p. 160, p. 162, p. 164, p. 17, p. 170, p. 170, p. 172, p. 173, p. 179, p. 180, p. 185, p. 186, p. 187, p. 187, p. 188, p. 189, p. 194, p. 195, p. 197, p. 199, p. 2, p. 20, p. 208, p. 208, p. 208, p. 22, p. 220, p. 222, p. 224, p. 239, p. 24, p. 241, p. 244, p. 247, p. 250, p. 251, p. 256, p. 257, p. 257, p. 259, p. 267, p. 268, p. 269, p. 27, p. 272, p. 276, p. 280, p. 280, p. 280, p. 29, p. 291, p. 291, p. 294, p. 3, p. 313, p. 315, p. 316, p. 316, p. 319, p. 319, p. 320, p. 326, p. 33, p. 331, p. 332, p. 34, p. 348, p. 36, p. 38, p. 397, p. 42, p. 48, p. 50, p. 53, p. 53, p. 56, p. 6, p. 6, p. 66, p. 66, p. 67, p. 68, p. 69, p. 69, p. 70, p. 73, p. 8, p. 8, p. 80, p. 80, p. 90, p. 94, p. 96, p. 98.
- The butterflies of the eastern United States and Canada: with special reference to New England / By Samuel Hubbard Scudder. Cambridge: The author, 1889. url p. 394, p. 410, p. 419, p. 514.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 17, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, ConDidact public insect surveys
- University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Biology, European Lepidoptera Observations by Donald Hobern
- University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Biology, Lepidoptera collection of Hannu Saarenmaa
- University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Biology, Lepidopterological Society of Finland
- University of Navarra, Museum of Zoology, Museum of Zoology, University of Navarra
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2968613
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2481042
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 631599
- http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/taxonomy?f=18&sci=Nymphalidae&com=Brush-footed Butterflies [back]
- http://bugguide.net/index.php?q=search&keys=Editha&search=Search [back]
- Mean = 114.080 meters (374.278 feet), Standard Deviation = 173.610 based on 17,552 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]