Family : Mackerels , tunas , bonitos ; Found in neritic waters close inshore . This schooling species is an opportunistic predator which feeds on virtually everything within its range , i.e. crustaceans, fishes (mainly clupeoid), squids , heteropods and tunicates . Specialized traps (madragues ) are used in Tunisia and Morocco. Diving bird flocks may indicate large schools. Utilized fresh, dried-salted, smoked, canned and frozen. A popular game fish.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Aladian:
Common Names in Albanian:
Common Names in Arabic:
Balamydah, Lbakoura, R´zem, R'zem, Toun Sghir, Tunna
Common Names in Arabic, Hassaniya:
Common Names in Catalan:
Common Names in Creole, French:
Common Names in Creole, Portuguese:
Cachorra, Cachorreta, Cachorrinha, Fulu Fulu, Judeu, Merma
Common Names in Croatian:
Lic, Mulac, Rudan, Trup Crnopjeg, Tumburel, Zlatoperac
Common Names in Danish:
Almindelig Thunnin, Thunnin
Common Names in English:
Little Tunny, Atlantic Black Skipjack, Atlantic Little Tuna, Atlantic Little Tunny, Bonito, False Albacore, Little Tuna
Common Names in Ewe:
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Bonite, Bonite queue Raide, Ravil, Thonine, Thonine Commune
Common Names in German:
Falscher Bonito, Kleiner Thun, Thonine
Common Names in Greek:
Karvouni, Καρβούνα, Καρβούνι, Λεκατίκι, Τάσκα, Τονίνα, Τοννάκι, Τουνίνα
Common Names in Hebrew:
Common Names in Italian:
Alacurza, Aleterato, Alletterato, Allittirato, Allittiratu, Carcana, Cuvarito, Cuvaritu, Leterato, Letterato, Lettirado, Litterato, Littiratu, Nzirru, Palametidd, Pizziteddu, Sanguinaccio, Scamp, Tonnella, Tonnetto, Tonnetto Alletterato, Tonnina, Tunna, Tunnina
Common Names in Japanese:
Taiseiyou-Yaito, Taiwan Yaito
Common Names in Kru:
Common Names in Maltese:
Kubrit, Kubrita, Tonina
Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Nzema:
Common Names in Other:
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Albacora, Apluro, At, Bacoreta, Barrilete, Bonito, Bonito-Cachorro, Bonito-Pintado, Bonito-Rajado, Curuat, Fule-Fule, Melena, Melva, Merma
Common Names in Rumanian:
Common Names in Russian:
Atlanticheskyj Malyj Tunets, Pyatnistyi Tunets, Tsyatnystyj Atlanticheskyj Tunets
Common Names in Serbian:
Common Names in Slovenian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Atuncito, Bacor, Bacor?te, Bacoreta, Bonito, Caba, Caba?a Pintada, Carachana, Carachana Pintada, Comev, Comev?veres, Vaca
Common Names in Swedish:
Common Names in Turkish:
Common Names in Ukrainian:
Malyi Zapadnyi Tunets
Common Names in Wolof:
Deleu Deleu, Oualass, Ouolass, Walas
Species Euthynnus alletteratus
Distinctive Features: The little tunny has a robust
body built for powerful swimming. The mouth
is large, slightly curved
. The lower jaw slightly protruding past
the upper jaw. There are two longitudinal
on the tongue. Scales
are lacking on the body except for the corselet
and the lateral line.
The corselet is a band
of large, thick scales forming a circle around
the body behind
, extending backwards
along the lateral line.
The lateral line is slightly undulate
with a slight arch below the
front of the dorsal fin, then straight to the caudal keel. The caudal
is deeply lunate
, with a slender caudal penduncle including one
short keel on each side. The first dorsal fin has high anterior spines
giving the fin a concave
outline, separated only narrowly from the
second dorsal. Pectoral fins are pointed
and short, not reaching
to the end of the first dorsal; the pelvic fins are inserted
behind the origin
of the pectoral fins. Swimbladder is absent.
Dentition: Lower jaw protrudes slightly past the upper jaw; there is a single row of small, inwardly curved teeth with similar teeth on the palatines. Teeth are absent on the vomer and tongue.
This fish is steel blue with 3-5 broken , dark wavy lines , not extending below the lateral line. The belly is white and lacks stripes . There are 3-7 dark spots between the pelvic and pectoral fins. Spots below the pectoral fin are dusky .
The average size of the little tunny is up to 32 inches (81 cm) in length , weighing up to 20 lbs (9.1 kg ). The maximum recorded size is 48 inches (122 cm) and 35.3 lbs (16 kg). The little tunny may live to 10 years of age. Females reach maturity at 10.6-14.6 inches (27-37 cm) in length while males mature at approximately 15.7 inches (40 cm).
This fish is typically found in neritic waters, inshore over the continental shelf in turbid , brackish waters. Adult little tunny school according to size with other scombrid species at depths ranging from 3-490 feet (1-150m). However, during certain times of the year the schools break apart with individuals scattering throughout the habitat . Juveniles form compact schools offshore.
This is a reef-associated
species found in neritic
waters close inshore
(Cervigón 1994). It is found in surface waters,
mainly on the continental shelf. Less migratory than Katsuwonus
pelamis or other tunas
, it is usually found in coastal areas
with swift currents
, near shoals
and offshore islands. In the Mediterranean
it is also found far offshore. This schooling
species is an opportunistic
on primarily on fishes
(mainly clupeoid), but
also on crustaceans, squids
, hyperiid amphipods
, heteropods and tunicates
(Bahou et al.
et al. 2007). Eggs
are shed in several batches when the water is warmest.
Little Tunny spawns extensively, both geographically and temporally, throughout its respective range (Schaefer 2001). Eggs are shed in several batches when the water is warmest. Although spawning distributions of all three Euthynnus species have been reported to be restricted primarily to peripheral areas and around islands within their respective ocean basins (Yoshida 1979, Nishikawa et al. 1985), spawning in the eastern tropical Pacific has been shown to be widely distributed from coastal to oceanic waters (Schaefer 1987).
In Tunisia, the sex ratio is 57.77% females (Hajjej et al. 2011). GSI indicated spawning June–Sept. Size at first maturity 43.13 cm fork length (FL ) for females, 42.12 for males. Length-weight Wt = 0.0329.FL2.8101 for females, 0.0368.FL2.7832 for males.
This species has an estimated longevity of between eight and 10 years (Cayre and Diouf 1983, Landau 1965), with an estimated age of first maturity of two or three years (Landau 1965, Hattour 2000, Kahraman et al. 2008). Generation length is therefore estimated to be approximately four years.
Maximum size is 100 cm FL. The all-tackle gamefish record is a 16.32 kg fish taken in Washington Canyon , New Jersey in 2006 (IGFA 2011)..
List of Habitats :
Little tunny is an opportunistic predator , feeding on crustaceans, clupeid fishes , squids , and tunicates . It often feeds on herring and sardines at the surface of the water.
Spawning occurs in April through November in the eastern and western Atlantic Ocean while in the Mediterranean Sea spawning takes place from late spring through summer. Little tunny spawn outside the continental shelf region in water of at least 77°F (25°C), where females release as many as 1,750,000 eggs in multiple batches. The males release sperm, fertilizing the eggs in the water column . These fertilized eggs are pelagic, spherical , and transparent, with a diameter of 0.8-1.1 mm. The yolk is rich in black pigment and the egg is a light amber color overall. There is a single droplet of oil within the egg, adding to its buoyancy . Larvae, approximately 3 mm in size, are released 24 hours after fertilization, with the yolk being completely absorbed within the first 48-66 hours of life. The eyes are unpigmented at hatching , with pigmentation appearing 48 hours later. A small caudal spot is present. At sizes of 3.7-14mm, the teeth develop, the head becomes large, the snout long, and the fins develop. Juveniles from 14mm-174mm in length take on the adult appearance with the body becoming more fusiform and elongate .
Other tunas , including conspecifics and yellowfin tuna (Thynnus albacares). Fishes such as dolphin fish (Coryphaena hippurus), wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri), atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus albicans), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and various sharks as well as other large carnivorous fish all prey on the little tunny. Seabirds also prey on small little tunny.
Parasites of the little tunny include the copepods Caligus bonito, Caligus coryphaenae, and Caligus productus, all found on the body surface as well as on the wall of the branchial cavities. Another copepod, Pseudocycnoides appendiculatus, has been documented as parasitic on the gill filaments. Other parasites include digenea (flukes ), monogenea (gillworms), cestoda (tapeworms ), and isopods .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Huxley, 1880
- Huxley, 1880
- Infraclass: Actinopteri ()
- Subclass: Actinopterygii ()
- Class: Osteichthyes () - Huxley, 1880
- Superclass: Osteichthyes () - Huxley, 1880
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Euthinnus alletteratus • Euthinnus alletteratus (Rafinesque • Euthynnus alleteratus • Euthynnus alleteratus (Rafinesque • Euthynnus alletteratus alletteratus • Euthynnus alletteratus alletteratus (Rafinesque • Euthynnus alletteratus aurolitoralis • Euthynnus alletteratus aurolitoralis Fraser-Brunner • Euthynnus alliteratus • Euthynnus alliteratus (Rafinesque • Euthynnus allitteratus • Euthynnus allitteratus (Rafinesque • Euthynnus quadripunctatus • Euthynnus quadripunctatus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire • Euthynnus thunina • Euthynnus thunina (Cuvier • Gymnosarda alleterata • Gymnosarda alleterata (Rafinesque • Gymnosarda alletterata (Rafinesque • Gymnosarda alliterata (Rafinesque • Orcynus thunnina (Cuvier • Pelamys alleterata (Rafinesque • Scomber alletteratus Rafinesque • Scomber quadripunctatus Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire • Thynnichthys brevipinnis (Cuvier • Thynnichthys thunnina (Cuvier • Thynnus brasiliensis Cuvier • Thynnus brevipinnis Cuvier • Thynnus leachianus Risso
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 01-Sep-1998
Members of the genus Euthynnus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 10 species and subspecies in this genus:
E. affinis (Black Skipjack Tuna) · E. affinis affinis (Eastern Little Tuna) · E. alleteratus (Atlantic Black Skipjack) · E. alletteratus (Little Tunny) · E. alliteratus (Atlantic Black Skipjack) · E. allitteratus (Atlantic Black Skipjack) · E. lineatus (African Glass Catfish) · E. lineatus kishinouye (Black Skipjack) · E. pelamis (Bonito) · E. pelamys (Bonito)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 12, 2007:
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Fish Collection
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, Canadian Museum of Nature - Fish Collection
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, NODC WOD01 Plankton Database
- Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Ichtyologie
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, MCZ Fish Collection
- Royal Ontario Museum, Fish specimens
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Fishes
- University of Kansas Biodiversity Research Center, Fish Collection
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3863639
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-22759
- Fishbase Species ID: 97
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13548945
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 172402
- IUCN ID: 209393
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 110520
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