Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Alutiiq:
Common Names in Bulgarian:
Common Names in Cree:
Cinosa, Cinoseo, Cinus, Tchinouchao
Common Names in Danish:
Almindelig Gedde, Gedde
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
American Pike, Pike, Common Pike, Great Lakes Pike, Great Northern Pickerel, Great Northern Pike, Jack, Jackfish, Northern Pearleye, Northern Pike, Pickerel, Snake, Wolf
Common Names in Estonian:
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Bec, Bec De Canard, Becquet, Beked, Brochet, Brochet Commun, Brochet De Mer, Brochet Du Nord, Brochet Europ, Brouch, Brouchet, Brouchetta, Buch, Grand Avaleur, Grand Brochet, Hecht, Lanceron, Poignard, Sifflet
Common Names in Gaelic, Irish:
Common Names in German:
Bunthecht, Europ, Flu, Grashecht, Hecht, Hechten, Heekt, Heichit, Hengste, Scheckhecht, Schn, Schnock, Schnuck, Snook
Common Names in Greek:
To, Ζούρνα, Τούρνα
Common Names in Hungarian (Magyar):
Common Names in Icelandic:
Common Names in Inuktitut:
Hiulik, Idl, Ihok, Kikiyuk, Kiqy, Kiqyôq, She, Sheoak, Siilik, Siolik, Siulik, Siun, Sjulik, Tchukvak
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Kirghiz:
Common Names in Latvian:
Common Names in Lithuanian:
Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Persian:
Ordak Mahi, Ordakmahi, Shook Chehkhab
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Prussian, Old:
Common Names in Rumanian:
Common Names in Russian:
Obyknovennaya Schuka, Shchuka, Shtschuka, обыкновенная щука, щука, Щука обыкновенная
Common Names in Serbian:
Common Names in Slovak:
Common Names in Slovenian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Common Names in Turkish:
Species Esox lucius
and snout: Duck-billed snoutwith terminal mouth
teeth in jaws
. No barbels
. Body patterning, color, and
: Yellow-green, light olive, or cream oval
spots on a darker
olive or green background, in a reticulated
or chain-like pattern
(but see Juveniles
). Belly cream or white. Fins
yellowish- or reddish-brown;
, and tail with diffuse
dark spots. 105-148 (usually
> 120) cycloid lateral
scale. Body shape
and size: Body elongate
and cylindrical; in cross
500-900 mm (20-36 in) TL
; maximum in Wisconsin about 1250 mm (50
Fins: Tail, dorsal and other fins: Forked tail. Single dorsal with no spines and 15-19 principal rays. Pelvic fins abdominal . Adipse fin absent. Anal fin with 12-15 principal rays.
Breeding adults : Similar to non-breeders.
Juveniles: Small juveniles with faint dark mottling or vertical bars on dark green or olive flanks (may superficially appear to be a solid color); sharp border with white belly. Larger juveniles with alternating thin light and thicker dark transverse vertical bars; with increasing size the light (photos) bars break into spots.
May live as long as 30 years in the wild, 6 years in captivity.
Typically found in a lake at a mean distance from sea level of 121 meters (396 feet).
In a wide variety of habitats with aquatic or periodically flooded vegetation. Often semi-anadromous in part of northern Baltic basin with lower salinity .
Males reproduce for the first time at 170-350 mm SL , females at 250-400 mm SL, at 1-6 years. Reproduction closely related to the presence of submerged vegetation . Spawns in late winter or early spring , between February in the south and June in the north, when temperature rises above 5°C. Several males court a single female. Eggs are deposited in flooded areas and on submerged vegetation over a period of 2-5 days. Juvenile survival is negatively related to biomass of older individuals and positively related to the area of the patches covered by submerged vegetation. Feeds on various small vertebrates , predominantly fish, and large invertebrates as decapod crustaceans. Cannibalism is common. In arctic lakes , it is sometimes the only fish species in a given water body ; in such cases, juveniles feed on invertebrates and terrestrial vertebrates; large individuals are predominantly cannibals..
List of Habitats:
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 5.7 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) [more info]
Adults feed mainly on fishes , but at times feed heavily on frogs and crayfish. Cannibalistic as juveniles . In spite of numerous attempts to culture this species, it was never entirely domesticated and does not accept artificial food .
This fish can be heavily infested with parasites, including the broad tapeworm which, if not killed by thorough cooking, can infect human; is used as an intermediate host by a cestode parasite which results to large losses in usable catches of lake whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ) in some areas; also suffers from a trematode which causes unsightly cysts on the skin .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Superclass: Osteichthyes () - Huxley, 1880
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Esox boreus Agassiz • Esox estor Lesueur • Esox lucioides Agassiz and Girard • Esox lucius atrox Anikin • Esox lucius bergi Kaganowsky • Esox lucius lucius Kirillov • Esox lucius variegatus Fitzinger • Esox nobilior Thompson • Esox reichertii baicalensis Dybowski • Luccius vorax Rafinesque • Lucius lucius (Linnaeus • Trematina foveolata Trautschold
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 17-Jul-1998
Fish Name Opercle and Cheek Scalation Mandibular Pores (Single Side of Jaw) Branchiostegal Rays (One Side) Adult Color Pattern Similarity Index Grass Pickerel Both fully scaled 4, rarely 3 or 5 10-14, usually 12 Dark mottled or irregular dark vertical bars; dark vertical bar below eye Very similar Muskellunge Only top portion of cheek and opercle scaled 6-9 16-19 Either solid light olive color or dark vertical bars (may be faint) or spots on light background; no bar below eye Very similar Northern Pike Cheek fully scaled, only top portion of opercle scaled 5, rarely 4 or 6 14-16 Regular rows of oval light spots on dark green background; no or faint bar below eye N/A
Members of the genus Esox
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 26 species and subspecies in this genus:
E. americanus (Redfin Or Grass Pickerel) · E. americanus americanus (Grass) · E. americanus vermiculatus (Grass Pickerel) · E. barracuda (Commerson's Sea Pike) · E. belone (Greenbone) · E. boa (Scaly Dragonfish) · E. cancila (Freshwater Garfish) · E. ectuntio (Ectuntio Halfbeak) · E. gambarur (Red Sea Halfbeak) · E. hepsetus (Broad-Striped Anchovy) · E. lucius (American Pike) · E. malabaricus (Tiger Characin) · E. marginatus (Yellowtip Halfbeak) · E. marinus (Northern Needlefish) · E. masquinongy (Allegheny River Pike) · E. masquinongy masquinongy (Allegheny River Pike) · E. niger (Chain Pickerel) · E. osseus (Long-Nosed Gar) · E. reicherti (Blackspotted Pike) · E. reichertii (Blackspotted Pike) · E. saurus (North Atlantic Saury) · E. sphyraena (Mediterranean Barracuda) · E. synodus (Diamond Lizardfish) · E. tristoechus (Cuban Alligator Gar) · E. vermiculatus (Grass Pickerel) · E. vulpes (Indo-Pacific Bonefish)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Biological Records Centre - Database for the Atlas of Freshwater Fishes
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Highland Biological Recording Group - HBRG Fish and Herptiles dataset
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Scottish Borders Biological Records Centre - SWT Scottish Borders Local Wildlife Site Survey data 1996-2000 - species information
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3863621
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-29374
- Fishbase Species ID: 258
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 5347612
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 162139
- IUCN ID: 208418
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: AFCHD01021
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 15756
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