Common Names in English:
Soldier, Tropic Queen, Tropical Queen
'The Nymphalidae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Distributed worldwide, butterflies of this family
are especially rich in the tropics. They are highly variable, and there are more species in this family than in any other. Adults
vary in size from small to large, and their front legs
are reduced, unable to be used for walking. Wing
is also highly variable: some species have irregular margins
(anglewings and commas), and others have long taillike projections (daggerwings). Browns, oranges, yellows, and blacks are frequent colors, while iridescent
colors such as purples and blues are rare. Adults of some groups are the longest-lived butterflies, surviving 6-11 months. Adult feeding behavior depends on the species, where some groups primarily seek flower nectar while others only feed
, rotting fruit, dung, or animal carcasses. Males exhibit
behaviors when seeking mates. Egg-laying
varies widely, as some species lay eggs
in clustsers, others in columns, and others singly. Caterpillar appearance
and behavior vary widely. Brushfoots overwinter
as larvae or adults.
Monarchs and milkweed butterflies are members of Danainae, which is a subfamily of the Family Nymphalidae. The best known member of this family is the Monarch butterfly. Danaid females lay their eggs on the milkweed on which their larvae feed . The larvae and the butterflies retain the poisonous glycosides from the milkweed and are poisonous to predators .
Species Danaus eresimus
Upperside is brownish orange, darker at the wing bases ; both wings with thin black veins. Black borders of forewings have 2 rows of white spots; white spots are scattered at the forewing apex. Underside of hindwing has black veins; black borders of both wings have 2 rows of white spots. Upperside of male hindwing has a black scale patch . Very similar to the Queen (Danaus gilippus), but upperside of the forewing usually lacks larger white spots below the apex. Upperside is more orange and the wing veins are more defined than the Queen. Underside of hindwing has a band of blotchy pale spots, which are lacking in the Queen. (ref. 105842)
Wing span : 2 3/4 - 3 3/4 inches (7 - 9.5 cm).
Open pastures and fields
of seasonally dry tropical
In FL and TX, the species is found in open fields, wooded borders , and other mostly disturbed sites. It is not normally associated with coastal habitats , but at Fort Fisher and at Fort Macon the butterflies were found along the edges of a maritime forest and brackish marsh . (ref. 104656)
Flight: From August-December in South Texas; all year in southern
Florida, most common from October-December.
Flight period: The only records are one photographed by Derb Carter at Fort Fisher on July 19, 1998, and by Randy Newman at Fort Macon on July 27, 2003. (ref. 104656)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Butterflies and Moths
- Infraorder: Heteroneura ()
- Order: Lepidoptera () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Superorder: Panorpida ()
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Class: Insecta () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Insects
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Papilio eresimus Cramer 1777
They are fairly easily distinguished from their more common sister
species by the "smudged" black and white markings of the
hindwing undersides. Variable from light to darkly patterned.
Very similar to Queens. Note that the white spots in the forewings (as viewed from above) do not occur as extensively in Soldiers, and note that the Soldier's underhindwing shows a faint curved median watermark. Soldiers natively breed farther south, in FL and TX.
Members of the genus Danaus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 7 species and subspecies in this genus:
D. chrysippus (Plain Tiger) · D. cleophile (Jamaican Monarch) · D. eresimus (Soldier) · D. genutia (Common Tiger Butterfly) · D. gilippus (Queen) · D. plexippus (Monarch) · D. plexippus plexippus (Monarch)
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- British journal of entomology and natural history. [London]: British Entomological and Natural History Society, 1988- url p. 168.
- Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. 78 1935 Cambridge, Mass.: The Museum, 1863- url p. 146.
- Proceedings of the United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.] url .
- The Entomologist's record and journal of variation. s.l., s.n. url p. 268.
- The Lepidopterists' news: the monthly newsletter of the Lepidopterists' Society. Cambridge, Mass.: Lepidopterists' Society, 1947-1958. url p. 92, p. 97.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 9, 2012.
- Butterflies of North Carolina
- Opler, Paul A., Harry Pavulaan, Ray E. Stanford, Michael Pogue, coordinators. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Mountain Prairie Information Node. March 26, 2007.
- Opler, Paul A., Kelly Lotts, and Thomas Naberhaus, coordinators. 2009. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Big Sky Institute. http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ (Version of April 17, 2009).
- Pippen, Jeffrey S. Jeff's Nature Page. Accessed December 5, 2007.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2600740
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: IILEPP2030
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 172309