Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
common swan, domestic swan, Mute Swan, royal swan, swan, tame swan, wild swan
Common Names in French:
Cygne muet, Cygne tuberculé, Cygne Tuburcul, cygne tuburculÃ©, cygne tuburculé
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hebrew:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Russian:
Lebed-shipun, Лебедь шипун, Лебедь-шипун
Common Names in Spanish:
Common Names in Swedish:
Typically found in a lake at a mean distance from sea level of 286 meters (938 feet).
Behaviour Truly wild populations
of this species are migratory (particularly
where displaced by cold weather)1, 6 although European
populations are essentially sedentary1, 4, 5, 6
or only locally migratory or nomadic5, 6. The species
during the local spring1, 2 as isolated
pairs in well-defended territories1. After breeding
may gather in large concentrations of thousands or more3,
4 on selected waters3 (non-breeders in
northern Europe migrating
to such gatherings6)
between July and August5 to undergo a flightless
moulting period lasting for 6-8 weeks2. Although
not noticeably sociable in many areas during the winter4
the species may flock in groups of several thousands on favoured
waters3, 4, 5. Habitat The species inhabits
a variety of lowland freshwater
as shallow lakes2, ponds3, lagoons
marshes1, reedbeds1, 6 and slow-flowing
rivers2 (showing a preference for clean, weed-filled
over larger, polluted rivers
)4. It is also
common on artificial waterbodies such as reservoirs
lakes1, ditches6 and
canals5, and will graze on grassland and agricultural
arable cereal fields
)2. Moulting congregations
of adults and non-breeders6 may also utilise brackish
or saline habitats4 including brackish marshes2,
estuaries and sheltered coastal sites1 (e.g. brackish
lagoons2 and bays3). Diet
Its diet consists predominantly of leaves and the vegetative
parts of aquatic
plants1, 4 and grasses1
as well as algae4 and grain1,
occasionally also taking small amphibians1, 4 (frogs
toads and tadpoles
)6 and aquatic invertebrates
, insects and worms)1, 4. Breeding
site The nest
is a large mound of aquatic vegetation1,
2 placed close to or floating on shallow water1,
2 or amongst reeds1. Breeding pairs often
re-use nesting sites from previous years if the it was successful4.
information The cyclical removal of adult fish
from an artificial waterbody
) in the UK resulted in an
increase in the growth of submerged aquatic macrophytes and in turn
led to an increase in the winter use of the habitat
by the species8.
The removed fish (dead or alive) were sold to generate funds8.
A control of the breeding output of the species (brood reduction)
carried out in the Wylye Valley, UK to try to alleviate the species's
on fisheries (e.g. by overgrazing submergent riverine
vegetation) was found to be ineffective as it had an insignificant
impact on local population sizes (possibly due to immigration from
List of Habitats:
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps , Fens , Peatlands
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 13 Marine Coastal/Supratidal
- 13.4 Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes
- 13.5 Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Freshwater Lakes
Almost Exclusively: Plant Matter. Lesser Quantities of: Aquatic Invertebrates
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Sibley et al., 1988
- Wagler, 1831
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758) Wagler, 1831
- Series: href="http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/title/493 ()
- Infraorder: Anserides ()
- Suborder: Anseres () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758) Wagler, 1831
- Order: Anseriformes () - Wagler, 1831
- Superorder: Galloanserimorphae () - Sibley et al., 1988
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Cygnus olor (Gmelin 1789) • Cygnus olor (J. F. Gmelin, 1789)
Members of the genus Cygnus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species and subspecies in this genus:
C. atratus (Black Swan) · C. buccinator (Trumpeter Swan) · C. columbianus (Whistling Swan) · C. columbianus atlanticus (Tundra Swan) · C. columbianus bewickii (Bewick's Swan) · C. columbianus columbianus (Tundra Swan) · C. cygnus (Common Whooper) · C. cygnus buccinator (Trumpeter Swan) · C. melancoryphus (Black-Necked Swan) · C. melanocorypha (Black-Necked Swan) · C. olor (Domestic Swan)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 12, 2008:
- Avian Knowledge Network: eBird
- Avian Knowledge Network: Great Backyard Bird Count
- Avian Knowledge Network: Project FeederWatch
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen: Biologiezentrum Linz
- Bird Studies Canada: BC Coastal Waterbird Survey
- Bird Studies Canada: Marsh Monitoring Program - Birds
- Bird Studies Canada: Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas 1981-1985
- Bird Studies Canada: Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas 2001-2005
- Borror Laboratory of Bioacoustics
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem: GEO Biodiversity Day
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Ontario Nest Records
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Birds (Aves)
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Royal British Columbia Museum
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Bird Collection
- European Environment Agency: EUNIS
- Finnish Museum of Natural History: Hatikka Observation Data Gateway
- GBIF-Sweden: Bird Ringing Centre in Sweden (NRM)
- GBIF-Sweden: Birds (GBIF-SE:Artdatabanken)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Bay of Fundy Species List (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Taxonomic Information Sytem for the Belgian coastal area
- Institute of Nature Conservation PAS: National System of Proetcted Areas
- Israel Nature and Parks Authority
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University: MCZ Ornithology Collection
- Museum of Vertebrate Zoology: Terrestrial vertebrate specimens
- National Science Museum of Korea: National Science Museum of Korea Bird
- Royal Ontario Museum: Bird specimens
- Senckenberg: Collection Aves (bird skins)
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility: Priest Pot species list, Cumbria, Britain
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Argyll Bird Club - Bird records for Argyll for the years 2002 and 2003
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Herts Bird Club - Hertfordshire Breeding Bird Atlas : 1988-1992
- UK National Biodiversity Network: Scottish Borders Biological Records Centre - SWT Scottish Borders Local Wildlife Site Survey data 1996-2000 - species information
- University of Gdansk, Bird Migration Research Station: Ringing Data from the Bird Migration Research Station, University of Gdańsk
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ): Bird specimens
- Upper Silesian Museum, Bytom: Upper Silesian Museum, Bird Observations
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 11626
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-174985
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 3085810
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 174985
- IUCN ID: 203865
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNJB02040
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 153049
- Standard Deviation = 606.820 based on 20,000 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- BirdLife International 2009. Cygnus olor. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 January 2012. [back]