- Found on all continents and in all large cities, the rock dove, commonly known as the domestic pigeon (Columba livia), is native to few of these places. As people moved across oceans to the New World, they took pigeons with them. Many became feral but continued to live in proximity to people. It is estimated that there are about five million pigeons in New York City alone.
- The bird's homing instinct was used early in ancient history by Egyptians and Greeks. News of Caesar’s victories in Gaul was sent to Rome by carrier pigeon. A Baghdad sultan is said to have set up the first pigeon mail around A.D. 1150. Pigeons were used extensively at the front in World War I. Pigeon racing has become a worldwide sport, the birds usually flying at about 50 mph.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Armenian:
[tkhakapuyt Aghavni ]
Common Names in Asturian:
Common Names in Basque:
Common Names in Breton:
Common Names in Bulgarian:
Common Names in Catalan:
Colom Roquer, Colom Salvatge
Common Names in Cornish:
Common Names in Croatian:
Common Names in Czech:
Holub Dom, Holub Skaln
Common Names in Danish:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in Emiliano-romagnolo:
Common Names in English:
blue rock, carrier pigeon, common pigeon, domestic pigeon, feral pigeon, Feral Pigeon/Rock Dove, Feral Rock Pigeon, homing pigeon, pigeon, Rock Dove, Rock DoveI, Rock Pigeon, street pigeon
Common Names in Esperanto:
Common Names in Estonian:
Common Names in Faroese:
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
pigeon biset, Pigeon biset domestique
Common Names in Friulian:
Common Names in Gaelic, Irish:
Common Names in Galician:
Common Names in German:
Felsentaube, Felsentaube (Haustaube)
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Common Names in Haitian Creole French:
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Common Names in Icelandic:
Common Names in Irish:
Common Names in Italian:
Piccione, Piccione domestico, Piccione selvatico
Common Names in Japanese:
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Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Pombo Da Rocha, Pombo-Dom
Common Names in Portuguese (Brazil):
Common Names in Romanian:
Bareski-Golumbaika, Porumbel De St
Common Names in Romansh:
Columba Da Chasa
Common Names in Russian:
Sizy Golub, Голубь сизый, Сизый голубь
Common Names in Sardinian:
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Common Names in Sorbian, Lower:
Common Names in Sorbian, Upper:
Common Names in Sotho, Southern:
Common Names in Spanish:
Paloma, Paloma Brav, Paloma bravia, Paloma Dom, Paloma domÃ©stica, Paloma doméstica
Common Names in Spanish (Argentine):
Common Names in Spanish (Costa Rica):
Common Names in Spanish (Dominican Republic):
Common Names in Spanish (Honduras):
Paloma De Castilla
Common Names in Spanish (Mexico):
Common Names in Spanish (Nicaragua):
Common Names in Spanish (Paraguay):
Common Names in Spanish (Uruguay):
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Common Names in Valencian:
Common Names in Welsh:
Adult : Head : iridescent green, bronze, and purple Neck: iridescent green, bronze, and purple Body: Rump : white patch.
Vegetation: arid lowland scrubs, second-growth scrub, tropical lowland evergreen forest, second-growth forests and woodlands, arid lowland scrubs, pastures and agricultural lands • Maximum Elevation: 4,500 meters • Foraging Strata: Canopy • Center of Abundance: Lower tropical: lowlands, lower than 500 m.; tropics. • Sensitivity to Disturbance: Low
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 5,239 meters (0 to 17,188 feet).
List of Habitats
- 6 Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs , mountain peaks)
- 7 Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic)
- 7.1 Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) - Caves
- 14 Artificial/Terrestrial
- 14.1 Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
- 14.2 Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
- 14.6 Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Superorder: Psittacimorphae () - Huxley, 1867
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Columba (Columba) livia Gmelin 1789 • Columba livia J. F. Gmelin, 1789
Members of the genus Columba
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 90 species and subspecies in this genus:
C. albinucha (White-Naped Pigeon) · C. albitorques (White-Collared Pigeon) · C. araucana (Chilean Pigeon) · C. argentina (Silvery Wood Pigeon) · C. arquatrix (African Olive Pigeon) · C. arquatrix arquatrix (African Olive-Pigeon) · C. bollii (Dark-Tailed Laurel Pigeon) · C. caribaea (Jamaican Band-Tailed Pigeon) · C. cayennensis (Pale-Vented Pigeon) · C. corensis (Bare-Eyed Pigeon) · C. delegorguei (Eastern Bronze-Naped Pigeon) · C. delegorguei delegorguei (Eastern Bronze-Naped Pigeon) · C. duboisi (Lord Howe Island Parakeet) · C. elphinstonii (Nilgiri Wood Pigeon) · C. eversmanni (Yellow-Eyed Stock Dove) · C. fasciata (White-Collared Pigeon) · C. fasciata fasciata (Band-Tailed Pigeon) · C. fasciata monilis (Band-Tailed Pigeon) · C. fasciata vioscae (Band-Tailed Pigeon) · C. flavirostris (Red-Billed Pigeon) · C. flavirostris flavirostris (Red-Billed Pigeon) · C. goodsoni (Goodson's Pigeon) · C. guinea (African Rock Pigeon) · C. guinea guinea (Abyssinian Speckled Pigeon) · C. guinea phaeonota (Cape Speckled Pigeon) · C. hodgsonii (Speckled Wood Pigeon) · C. inornata (Plain Pigeon) · C. inornata inornata (Plain Pigeon) · C. iriditorques (Western Bronze-Naped Pigeon) · C. janthina (Japanese Wood Pigeon) · C. janthina janthina (Japanese Wood Pigeon) · C. jouyi (Ryuku Wood (Silver-Banded Black) Pigeon) · C. junoniae (White-Tailed Laurel Pigeon) · C. larvata (African Lemon Dove) · C. larvata larvata (African Lemon Dove) · C. leucocephala (White-Crowned Pigeon) · C. leucomela (White-Headed Pigeon) · C. leuconota (Snow Pigeon) · C. leuconota leuconota (Nepalese Snow-Pigeon) · C. livia (Feral Pigeon/Rock Dove) · C. livia dakhlae (Oasis Rock Pigeon) · C. livia gaddi (Iranian Rock Pigeon) · C. livia gymnocycla (Senegal Rock Pigeon) · C. livia livia (Common Rock Pigeon) · C. livia neglecta (Blue Rock Pigeon) · C. livia palaestinae (Arabian Rock Pigeon) · C. livia schimperi (Butler's Rock Pigeon) · C. livia targia (Saharan Rock Pigeon) · C. lugens (Silvery John Dory) · C. luzonica (Luzon Bleeding Heart Pigeon) · C. maculosa (Spot-Winged Pigeon) · C. maculosa maculosa (Spot-Winged Pigeon) · C. malherbii (Sao Thome Bronze-Naped Pigeon) · C. mayeri (Pink Pigeon) · C. nigrirostris (Short-Billed Pigeon) · C. oenas (Stock Pigeon) · C. oenas oenas (Stock Pigeon) · C. oenops (Salvin's Pigeon) · C. oliviae (Somali Stock Dove) · C. pallidiceps (Yellow-Legged Pigeon) · C. palumboides (Andaman Wood Pigeon) · C. palumbus (Azore's Wood Pigeon) · C. palumbus azorica (Azore's Wood Pigeon) · C. palumbus palumbus (Common Wood-Pigeon) · C. picazuro (Picazuro Pigeon) · C. picazuro picazuro (Picazuro Pigeon) · C. picturata (Madagascar Turtle-Dove) · C. plumbea (Plumbeous Pigeon) · C. plumbea plumbea (Plumbeous Pigeon) · C. pollenii (Comoros Rameron Pigeon) · C. pulchricollis (Ashy Wood Pigeon) · C. punicea (Purple Wood-Pigeon) · C. risoria (New Zealand Coot) · C. rupestris (Eastern Rock Pigeon) · C. rupestris rupestris (Eastern Rock Pigeon) · C. rupestris turkestanica (Blue Hill Pigeon) · C. sjostedti (Cameroon Olive Pigeon) · C. speciosa (Scaled Pigeon) · C. squamosa (Scaly-Naped Pigeon) · C. subvinacea (Ruddy Pigeon) · C. thomensis (Sao Thome Olive Pigeon) · C. torringtoni (Sri Lanka Wood-Pigeon) · C. torringtoniae (Ceylon Wood-Pigeon) · C. torringtonii (Ceylon Wood-Pigeon) · C. trocaz (Madeira Laurel Pigeon) · C. trocaz trocaz (Madeira Laurel Pigeon) · C. unicincta (African Wood Pigeon) · C. versicolor (Bonin Wood (Black) Pigeon) · C. vitiensis (White-Throated Pigeon) · C. vitiensis vitiensis (White-Throated Pigeon)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 30, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, North West Territories and Nunavut Bird Checklist, Canada
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Ontario Nest Records
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Birds
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Royal British Columbia Museum
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Terrestrial vertebrate specimens
- New Brunswick Museum, NBM birds
- Provider, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums
- Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara Musem of Natural History
- The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx River Bioblitz
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Herts Bird Club - Hertfordshire Breeding Bird Atlas : 1988-1992
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
- , Bird specimens
- Yale University Peabody Museum, Yale Peabody Museum - Invertebrate Paleontology DiGIR provider service
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 9299
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-676964
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 3085810
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 177071
- IUCN ID: 201530
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNPB01010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 147315