'The Lycaenidae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Worldwide in distribution, this family
has approximately 4,700 species that are unevenly distributed. Coppers are especially dominant in north temperate regions
, blues are richest
in the Old World tropics and north temperate
zones, and hairstreaks are particularly abundant in New World tropics. The adults
are typically small to tiny and often brilliantly colored--iridescent blues, bright reds, and oranges. Adults of both sexes have three pairs of walking legs
, though most males have fused segments in their front legs. Most adults visit flowers for nectar, but some harvesters feed
on wooly aphid honeydew and some hairstreaks feed on aphid honeydew or bird droppings. Females lay
urchin shaped eggs
on host leaves or flower buds; the resulting caterpillars are typically slug-shaped. In many species, caterpillars depend on ants
for protection, so caterpillars produce
sugary secretions that are collected by the ants. Most species overwinter in either the egg or pupal stage.
Coppers are members of the Family Lycaenidae. They are found in sunny, open habitats throughout the temperate zone, with 50 species found in Eurasia and North America. One isolated species lives on volcanoes in Guatemala, and a few species live in New Guinea, New Zealand, and northern Africa. No species are known migrants, but several are local colonists . Coppers typically have upper wing surfaces that are iridescent purple or red-orange, but some North American species are blue, brown, or gray. Males perch and interact with other males while awaiting receptive females. Most species have a single brood and overwinter as eggs or as first instar caterpillars within the egg. The caterpillars feed on leaves of host plants , which in North America are docks, knotweeds, buckwheats, cinquefoils, gooseberries, currants, or redberry.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Class: Insecta () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Insects
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Members of the genus Chrysophanus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species and subspecies in this genus:
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- A manual of North American butterflies by Charles J. Maynard. Boston: De Wolfe, Fiske, 1891. url .
- Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn, N.Y.: The Society, url p. 102.
- Catalogue of the family-group, genus-group and species-group names of the Riodinidae & Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera) of the world / Charles A. Bridges. Urbana, Ill.: C.A. Bridges, c1994. url p. 66.
- Entomological news, and proceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia[Entomological Rooms of the Academy of Natural Sciences] url p. 313.
- The butterflies of North America, by William H. Edwards, series 1st-3d. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1884-88 [v. 1, 1888] url .
- Zoe:a biological journal. 3 1892 San Diego, Calif. [etc.]Zoe Publishing Co. url p. 240.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 17, 2012.