Family : Requiem sharks ; Found in the continental shelves, preferably over muddy bottoms , and especially in estuaries. Feeds mainly on small fishes including young hammerhead and sharpnose sharks , and shrimps. Viviparous, with 2 to 7 young in a litter . Size at birth between 31 and 40 cm. Utilized fresh for human consumption and processed for fishmeal , and liver extracted for oil .
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Creole, French:
Common Names in Creoles and Pidgins, French:
Common Names in Danish:
Sm, Småhalet haj
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Requiem Shark, Shark, Small-tailed shark, smalltail shark, Tiburon Peninsula Limia, Tollo
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Réquiem tiqueue, Requin tiqueue
Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Azeiteiro, Ca, Cação, Cação-azeiteiro, Cação-do-salgado, Junteiro, Sicuri-branco, Triaqueira, Trisqueira
Common Names in Spanish:
Aleton, Cabeza dura, Cazón, Chaspat, Cuero duro, Cuero Duro O Cabeza Dura, Sarda, Tibur, Tibur?n Poroso, tiburÃ³n poroso, Tiburón aletón, Tiburón cuero duro, Tiburón poroso, Tiburón tollo, Tollo
Species Carcharhinus porosus
Distinctive Features: The smalltail shark
has a slender fusiform
body with a long pointed
snout and large eyes. It has small and inconspicuous
and short gill openings. The first dorsal fin, originating
over the inner margins
of the pectoral fins, is large and falcate
with a rounded
. The second dorsal fin is relatively small and
originates over or just behind
the midbase of the anal fin. The pectoral
are small with narrowly rounded or pointed tips. There is no
on this species. The anal fin is deeply notched
Coloration : The upper body is bluish-gray or gray, sometimes with an inconspicuous white band on the flank region. The gray coloration fades to a pale or white underside. The pectoral, dorsal, and caudal fins may have faint dusky or black markings.
Dentition: Dentition of the smalltail shark consists of 14-15 teeth in each side of both jaws . The teeth in the upper jaw are broadly triangular and strongly serrated with high cusps . The symphysial teeth number 1-2 in the upper jaw. The crown feet have coarser serrations and postlateral cusplets . The lower teeth have semierect or oblique , narrow cusps on larger bases . The number of symphysial teeth in the lower jaw ranges from 0 to 2.
Denticles : Dermal denticles of the smalltail shark overlap very little, leaving the skin somewhat exposed between them. The blades vary in size and are a bit wider than long. There are three ridges present in small individuals, increasing to five in larger sharks . The median tooth is easily the largest with very short pedicels.
Size, Age, and Growth: The maximum reported size of the smalltail shark is 4.4 feet (1.3 m ) total length. However, the average size of an adult specimen is 3-3.6 feet (0.9-1.1 m) in length with females growing to larger sizes than males. Males reach maturity at 2.5 feet (.75 m) and females at 2.8 feet (.84 m) total length.
Although data pertaining to the lifespan of the smalltail shark is lacking, individuals measuring approximately 3.3 feet (1 m) in length have been determined to be 12 years of age based on vertebrae samples .
The growth rate of the smalltail shark is 2.8 inches (7 cm) per year during the first four years of life, slowing to 1.6 inches (4 cm) per year after maturity is reached. Males are commonly 90 cm (Total Length) in length when caught/marketed, but may be as large as 150 cm (Total Length).
Common in waters over continental shelves, the Smalltail Shark
. It swims
along the bottom to
depths of 36 m
BRAZIL: The largest specimen ever caught in northern Brazil was a 128.5 cm TL female. However, the largest specimen analyzed in the literature cited here was a female measuring 120.5 cm TL and the smallest a 29.4 cm TL male (Lessa et al. 1999). The modal class in samples was 50 to 60 cm TL for both sexes. Age ranged from zero (newborns) to 12 years for individuals between 30 and 101 cm TL. Developed embryos of 28.5 cm TL were observed in the area; the average size at birth is 30 cm TL. The average fecundity is six embryos per female (Lessa et al. 1999). A resting break is suggested between successive pregnancies, implying a biennial cycle. The length- weight relationship did not differ significantly between the sexes. Diameter of ovarian follicles, presence of eggs/embryos and nidamental gland traits in female point to a major physiological change toward maturity at about 70.0 cm. Vitellogenesis was first observed at 63.0 cm, and the smallest of the six pregnant females was 70.0 cm; there was a significant relationship between the number of embryos and female size (Lessa et al. 1999) The size at 50% of maturity is 71 cm TL (males) and 70 cm TL (females) (Lessa et al.1999). Age and growth were estimated from vertebral analysis for individuals ranging from zero to twelve years. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were: L? = 136.4 cm TL, K= 0.077 year-1 and t0 = -3.27 year.
The Smalltail Shark is an opportunistic predator , feeding primarily on small fishes including sea catfish, croakers, jacks and grunts , it also consumes aquatic invertebrates including crabs and shrimps. Adults may prey upon elasmobranchs, whereas juveniles show a wider food spectrum. Ontogenetic differences in diet were observed for both males and females. There is evidence of size selection of prey related to predator size (Lessa and Almeida 1997).
Life history parameters
Age at maturity: Male & Female: 6 years (Lessa and Santana 1998).
Size at maturity (total length): Female: 70 cm (Lessa and Santana 1988), 72 to 78 cm (Compagno et al. 2005); Male: 71 cm (Lessa and Santana 1998), 84 cm (Compagno et al. 2005)
Longevity : 12 years (Lessa and Santana 1998).
Maximum size (total length): 128.5 cm (Maranhão - Lessa et al. 1999); 134 cm (São Paulo - Sadowsky 1967); et al. 2005).
Size at birth: 30 cm (observed) and 31.1 cm (back-calculated) (Lessa and Santana 1998); 31-40 cm (Compagno et al. 2005).
Average reproductive age: 6 years (Lessa and Santana 1998).
Gestation time: ~12 months (Lessa et al. 1999).
Reproductive periodicity: Biannual cycle (Lessa et al. 1999).
Average annual fecundity or litter size : Average 6 embryos; maximum 9 (Lessa et al. 1999, Stride et al. 1992).
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality : 0.20 (Hoening´s Model ); 0.23 (Pauly´s Model) (Santana da Silva 2001)...
List of Habitats:
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.1 Marine Neritic - Pelagic
- 9.9 Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
- 9.10 Marine Neritic - Estuaries
- 13 Marine Coastal/Supratidal
- 13.4 Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes [more info]
The smalltail shark is an opportunistic predator , feeding primarily on small fishes including sea catfish, croakers, jacks , and grunts . The smalltail shark also eats aquatic invertebrates including crabs and shrimps. Adult smalltail sharks feed on other elasmobranchs such as young hammerhead (Sphyrna spp. ) and sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon spp.) sharks.
The mode of reproduction for the smalltail shark is viviparity with a yolksac. The gestation period is approximately 10 months or more. Birth takes place during the spring and summer months in the waters off Brazil. There are 2-9 pups per litter , depending on the size of the female. Each pup measures 12.2-15.7 inches (31-40 cm) in length at time of birth.
Predators : Large sharks are potential predators of the smalltail shark , especially of juvenile individuals.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Order: Carcharhiniformes ()
- Cohort: Neoselachii ()
- Infraclass: Euselachii ()
- Subclass: Elasmobranchii ()
- Class: Chondrichthyes ()
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Carcharhinus cerdale Gilbert • Carcharhinus porosus • Carcharhinus porosus (Ranzani, 1840) • Carcharias henlei Müller & Henle • Carcharias porosus Ranzani • Carcharias porosus Ranzani, 1839
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 28-Oct-2000
Members of the genus Carcharhinus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 36 species and subspecies in this genus:
C. acronotus (Blacknose Shark) · C. ahenea (Shortnose Blacktail Shark) · C. albimarginatus (Silvertip Shark) · C. altimus (Knopp´s Shark) · C. amblyrhynchoides (Graceful Shark) · C. amblyrhynchos (Shortnose Blacktail Shark) · C. amboinensis (Ambon Sharpnose Puffer) · C. azureus (Large Blacktip Shark) · C. borneensis (Borneo Mullet) · C. brachyurus (Black-Tipped Whaler) · C. brevipinna (Blacktipped Shark) · C. cautus (Sharks Bay Whaler Shark) · C. dussumieri (Whitecheek Shark) · C. falciformis (Sickle-Shaped Shark) · C. fitzroyensis (Creek Whaler Shark) · C. galapagensis (Galapagos Shark) · C. hemiodon (Pondicherry Shark) · C. isodon (Fintooth Shark) · C. leiodon (Smoothtooth Blacktip Shark) · C. leucas (Bull Shark) · C. limbatus (Blacktip Shark) · C. longimanus (Brown Milbert's Sand Bar Shark) · C. macloti (Hardnose Shark) · C. melanopterus (Black Fin Reef Shark) · C. obscurus (Dusky Shark) · C. perezi (Caribbean Reef Shark) · C. perezii (Caribbean Reef Shark) · C. plumbeus (Northern Whaler Shark) · C. porosus (Tiburon Peninsula Limia) · C. sealei (Black-Spot Shark) · C. signatus (Night Shark) · C. sorrah (West Australian Whaler Shark) · C. springeri (Reef Shark) · C. tilstoni (Australian Blacktip Shark) · C. velox (Whitenose Shark) · C. wheeleri (Blacktail Reef Shark)
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- A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Report presented at the eighty-ninth annual meeting, Clearwater, Fla., Sept. 16-18, 1959. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1960. url p. 7.
- California fish and game. [San Francisco, etc.]: State of California, Resources Agency, Dept. of Fish and Game. url p. 149, p. 253.
- Dean bibliography of fishes. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1971-1973. url p. 9.
- Fishery bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service: url p. 163, p. 167.
- Fishery bulletin. United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, The Service, U.S. Govt Print. Off. url p. 18, p. 33.
- Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Editorial board: editor-in-chief John Tee-Van [and others] New Haven, Sears Foundation for Marine Research, Yale Univ., 1948- url .
- Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series. San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences. url p. 67.
- Publication. Field Museum of Natural History. Chicago, U.S.A.: The Museum, 1910-1943. url p. 49.
- Special scientific report. Seattle, National Marine Fisheries Service; for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1949-1971. url p. 41.
- The marine fishes of Panama. by Seth E. Meek and Samuel F. Hildebrand. 15 1923 Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1923 url p. 49.
- American Fisheries Society. Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United states, Canada, and Mexico Sixth Edition. Special Publication 29.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 9, 2012.
- Cathleen Bester. Florida Museum of Natural History
- Compagno, Leonard J.V. (from FishBase).
- FishBase. Release date: January 5, 2010
- Froese, R., and D. Pauly. FishBase 2004. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 01, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 6 providers.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Lessa, R., Almeida, Z., Santana, F.M., Siu, S. & Perez, M. 2006. Carcharhinus porosus. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 31January2012.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 01, 2008:
- FishBase: FishBase DiGIR Provider - Philippine Server
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: iziko South African Museum - Fish Collection
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: iziko South African Museum - Shark Collection
- Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History: Vertebrate specimens
- Museum national d'histoire naturelle: Ichtyologie
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University: MCZ Fish Collection
- Royal Ontario Museum: Fish specimens
- UNIBIO, IBUNAM: CNPE/Coleccion Nacional de Peces
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 122894
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-23067
- Fishbase Species ID: 881
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13535960
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 160340
- IUCN ID: 197940
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 105891