The Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) is a member of the Buteo group of raptors , which are heavy-bodied, soaring birds with broad wings and broad tails. These beautiful birds are North America's most common hawk.
- The most common hawk in North America, Red-tailed Hawks prey mostly on rodents and are found in a wide variety of habitats .
- At least one of three distinctive features can be seen on a adult Red-tail: a cream or whitish underside with brown streaks forming a “belly band”; a pale mottling on the darker back which forms a light “V” in the shoulder (scapular ) area, and the russet color of the top of the tail, usually seen as the bird banks in flight. 
- For birdwatchers, the signature cry is a hoarse, descending scream, described as kree-eee-ar. The powerful cry of this bird is used in movies and commercials depicting eagles since the eagle³ cry seems wimpy and thin in contrast.(Ref. 109946)
- The eyesight of a hawk is 8 times as powerful as that of humans. This doesn’t mean their vision magnifies the objects, but that they have greater resolving power. To a Red-tail, a mouse is perfectly clear at 100 feet or more where it would look like a blur to us. Hawks also have excellent color vision extending into the ultraviolet range so they see more colors than we do.
- Red-Tailed Hawks play a beneficial role by controlling rodents, rabbits, rattlesnakes and even grasshoppers. Red-tailed Hawks are considered to be a sign of good luck in the New Mexico Mescalero Apache tradition; farmers and ranchers should consider them with similar regard.
- State and federal laws protect all raptors . Even though Red-tails are not on the US Fish and Wildlife's Endangered or Threatened Species List, they are protected by the federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act.
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Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Red-tailed Hawk, black warrior, Buzzard, buzzard hawk, California hawk, Chicken Hawk, Cooper's buzzard hawk, eastern redtail, Fuertes' hawk, Harlan hawk, Harlan's hawk, Hen Hawk, Krider's hawk, Mouse Hawk, red hawk, red-tailed (Harlan) hawk, red-tailed buzzard, redtail, western redtail
Common Names in French:
Buse , buse à queue rousse, buse Ã queue rousse
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Russian:
Канюк ямайский или краснохвостый
Common Names in Spanish:
Aguililla cola roja
Adult : Body: Chest: white, streaked with dark brown Sides: cinnamon Underparts: white Upperparts: dark brown Legs : Thighs: cinnamon Wings : Shape : broad Tail: cinnamon-orange with narrow, dark subterminal band and whitish tip Shape: broad.Adult Eastern: Face : Cere: yellow Bill: Size: large Body: Belly: white with broad dark band Flanks: white with pale barring Wings: Shape: pale Tail: pale buff-pink to deep rufous-red.Immature: Body: Chest: white, streaked with dark brown Sides: cinnamon Underparts: cinnamon spotted and heavily streaked with white Upperparts: cinnamon spotted and streaked with white Legs: Thighs: cinnamon Wings: Shape: broad Tail: buffy, narrowly barred with dark brown Shape: broad.
Red-tailed Hawk plumage ranges
from light auburn to deep brown above.
The chest and throat
are creamy with some brown streaking
. The tail
may have a dark band
near the tip
below with dark mottling and dark leading edges
The cere (the skin
at the base
of the beak
), the legs
, and the feet
are all yellow.
Light morph adult : Brown head , nape, back, and upperwings · White chin, throat, breast, and belly · Dark belly band formed by vertical streaks in band across belly · White underwings have dark carpal bar on leading edge, dark outer primary tips and a dark trailing edge and are otherwise pale with dark bars on the flight feathers on all but the outermost primaries · Tail appears brick red above and pink below · Breast and back pattern vary with geography, with some birds being intermediate between light and dark morphs
Light morph immature: Like adult, but with less distinct markings below, and brown tail with numerous narrow, dark bands
Dark morph adult: Wholly dark chocolate underparts, upperparts and underwing coverts with no apparent patagial mark · Pale underside to primaries and secondaries like light morph birds being pale with dark tips and dark bars on the flight feathers · Tail appears brick red above and pink below (like light morph adult) · Breast and back pattern vary with geography, with some birds being intermediate between light and dark morphs
Dark morph immature: Dark brown head, neck, breast, back, upperwing and underwing coverts are variably mottled with white and buff · Dark brown tail with numerous darker bars · Paler flight feathers with dark barring on all but the outermost primaries
About 19 to 25 inches long, with a wingspan of 46 to 58 inches. Adults
weigh about 36.8 ounces
Red-tails are the largest of the Buteos with wingspans over four feet. Average length is about 20 inches; weight is two to four pounds . Although the coloration of the sexes is similar, females are 25-30% larger than males and may have
As a general rule
, the red-tailed hawk inhabits open areas interspersed
with patches of trees
. In open, grassland country, the red-tailed
hawk prefers areas with more, and taller, perch sites than do the
, Swainson's, or rough-legged hawk. Habitat
, agricultural pastures,
urban parklands, deciduous and coniferous
woodlands and tropical
rainforest. Possibly only the Peregrine Falcon shows an ability to
utilize as many or more habitat types than does the red-tailed hawk.
During the nesting season , birds may be found from sea level to at least 9,000 feet (2,790 km ). Birds prefer a tall tree with good aerial access . They will nest in a wide range of habitats including spruce forests , aspen stands, wooded stream valleys, woodlands in canyons , woodlots, saguaro deserts, deciduous woodlands or even arid canyonlands. Only the treeless arctic tundra has not been occupied by nesting red-tailed hawks.Winter habitats may tend to be more open with upland pastures, grasslands and hardwood forests being more preferred in some regions. In general, however, the basic habitat types are similar on a year-round basis except for those birds that migrate from the more northerly boreal forests and winter in grasslands or other southern habitats.The availability of perches is critical for this "sit and wait" type of predator . The availability of tall trees for nesting with foraging habitat nearby is important in many areas but nest sites are not always in trees if the region is generally non-forested. In this latter situation, cliff sites or other elevated locations may be used for nesting.
Vegetation: tropical deciduous forests, tropical lowland evergreen forest, pine forests, tropical lowland evergreen forest, pine-oak forests, montaine evergreen forests, arid lowland scrubs, arid montane scrubs, tropical lowland evergreen forest, second-growth forests and woodlands • Maximum Elevation: 3,500 meters • Foraging Strata: Canopy • Center of Abundance: Lower subtropical: lowlands, lower than 500 m.; subtropics. • Sensitivity to Disturbance: Low
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,793 meters (0 to 12,444 feet).
List of Habitats
- 1 Forest
- 1.4 Forest - Temperate
- 1.5 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
- 1.9 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
- 3 Shrubland
- 3.4 Shrubland - Temperate
- 3.5 Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
- 3.7 Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
- 4 Grassland
- 4.4 Grassland - Temperate
- 8 Desert
- 8.2 Desert - Temperate
- 14 Artificial/Terrestrial
- 14.1 Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
- 14.2 Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
- 14.6 Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest [more info]
Red-tailed hawks have a wide variety of dietary prey
ranging in size
from small mice to jackrabbits (0.5 ounces
to about 4.5 pounds
Prey will vary by location, season
, availability or even between
pairs or individuals, but in general, mammals make up the
bulk of their diets
either in the number of prey items or biomass
Many regional studies have been completed on the red-tailed hawks,
making generalizations less useful, but mammals have comprised from
37 to 99 percent of the diets in some studies. Other studies have
indicate the following range
of dietary compositions:
Birds 4 to 58 percent Herptiles 0 to 41 percent Invertebrates 0 to 21 percent
In eastern North America, voles, various species of mice, rats , and cottontails make up a large part of the diet with other common prey including the ring-necked pheasant, northern bobwhite, and other birds. In the western portions of the red-tailed hawk's range, snowshoe hares, black-tailed jackrabbits, and various species of ground squirrels, are important components . Snakes are also common in western diets along with pocket gophers, waterfowl, and small birds such as the western meadowlark and European starling.
A partial list of prey species includes red squirrel, eastern cottontail, varying hare, black-tailed jackrabbit, shrews, moles , bats, voles, mice, rats, pocket gophers, Richardson's ground squirrel, Columbian ground squirrel, other ground squirrel species, chipmunks, muskrat, domestic fowl, ring-necked pheasant, northern bobwhite, ruffed grouse, gray partridge, quails, dabbling ducks, crows, black-billed magpie, screech-owls, burrowing owl, shorebirds, European starling, meadowlarks, other passerines , desert spiny lizard, yellow-bellied racer, gopher snake, garter snakes, western rattlesnake, turtles, various frogs and toads, salamanders, crayfishes, grasshoppers, centipedes, spiders, other insects, and carrion including fishes , cow , horse, sheep, jackrabbits, bobcat, coyote, and skunk.
The red-tail hawk is an adaptable predator able to change to a new prey base if one food source declines. Its numbers are not tied to a particular combination of prey species.
site varies widely depending upon local topography and vegetation.
In forested areas, the nest is typically placed in the upper canopy
of tall trees
within woodlots or other fragmented
It may be located within large tracts of unbroken forest. The nest
tree may be taller than surrounding trees or on a higher slope
nest tends to be placed near the edges
of dense stands with more
open rather than closed
canopies. In areas where trees are scarce
or absent, cliff
, or artificial structures providing elevation
above the landscape are used. Saguaro cacti is used in some desert
locations. A common trait
of nest sites is an unobstructed access
from above and a good view
of the surrounding landscape.
Both sexes build or refurbish the nest. The main nest is generally sticks and twigs from 0.5 to nearly 1 inch (1.3 to 2.5 centimeters) in diameter. The lining may include strips of bark , greenery, catkins, herbaceous plant materials , lichens and so forth. Typically, nests are over 30 inches in diameter and more than 15 inches high. The bowl is 4 to 5 inches (10.2 to 12.7 centimeters) deep and about 14 inches wide (35.6 centimeters). Nests may be refurbished and reused in subsequent years and may become a little larger over time. Two or more nests may be built and not used.
Courtship flights include high-circling, tilting and sky-dancing. Other territorial and or courtship behaviors include high-perching, whirling flight and boundary patrol flights. "High-circling" has been seen in all seasons and may be a precursor to a number of activities. Birds rise high above the terrestrial territory and soar in wide circles, at times joined by other birds that may be from adjacent territories. This practice is an integral part of early phases in the breeding cycle and evolves into other flight activities that are preludes to copulation .
"Tilting" is performed by males in the spring and it may serve to reinforce the pair bond, although it does not seem to be performed on territory. With wings spread , tail partly spread, legs down and talons spread, the male circles slowly while tilting first one wing and then the other in a rocking motion. This position is maintained for some time and a female is always nearby.The "sky dance" consists of a bird rising to a high altitude , pushing the wings forward and holding the tips in tightly then plunging in a steep dive at a high rate of speed . At the bottom of the plunge, the bird checks its speed and then shoots upward at about the same angle as the dive. This is repeated in series until the bird vanishes from sight. The purpose is to designate territorial boundaries and occurs before and well into the incubation period . Whether both sexes undertake the activity is not known.While soaring fairly high, birds will suddenly "whirl" on one wing tip and rotate in a full circle. This may serve as territorial advertisement.Mostly, copulation occurs when the female finishes a courtship flight and lands on a perch from which she will posture by holding her back in a horizontal position and fluttering her wings. The male lands on her back and copulates for a period of five to 12 seconds. Afterwards, the pair may perch quietly or perform aerial acrobatics. The frequency and span of time over which copulation may occur seems to be unrecorded.
The clutch size varies from one to four, but is usually two or three eggs . The size averages about 2.4 by 1.9 inches (61.0 by 48.3 millimeters) with some geographic variation . The eggs are smooth and non-glossy, white, and may have a light buffy wash . They may be sparsely, or heavily-marked, with blotches that vary from reddish-brown, dark brown, or purple. These may be indistinct and combined with fine speckling. Clutch replacement may occur within three to four weeks of the loss of the first eggs and rarely, a third set may be laid. Egg-laying in the southern United States occurs as early as February but for much of the range south of the 49th parallel, March is typically the month for laying . In Canada, and the northern states, late March through early May is typical depending upon latitude and local climate, whereas in Alaska, laying occurs from April through late May.
Incubation begins before completion of the clutch or with the first egg that is laid and is undertaken by both sexes. The incubation period is variously estimated at 28 to 35 days. The female probably does the incubating at night and most of the daytime sitting as well. She will depart to hunt while the male incubates.
Hatching occurs over a two to four day period with fledging reported from 42 to 50 days but likely closer to 46 days on average. The young are active by the second day as they issue soft calls and bounce and wave their wings. By day seven, the young will peck at prey in the nest and spend less time bobbing and peeping. The young will sit up by day 15 and show aggression towards intruders at day 16. Striking with talons and wings will occur by day 21 and regular exercise and wing-stretching take place by day 30. The female will brood the young until the oldest is about 30 to 35 days old. For the first four to five weeks, prey brought to the nest is torn into small pieces by the female before being given to the young. After this period, the nestlings tear apart their own food.
After about 46 days, the young leave the nest but stay close for several days. They may remain quite sedentary or chase the parents begging for food. The young stay in the vicinity of the nest for 18 to 25 days with sustained flight possible about 18 days after fledging. The parents typically supply all of the food for the first three to four weeks after fledging. Capturing of small vertebrate prey occurs at about six to seven weeks but parents may still provide food until the eighth week after fledging. Association with the parents may last for 10 weeks in southern migratory populations and up to six months in non-migratory populations. After dispersal from the nesting territory, immatures from several territories may aggregate in an immature staging area.
Cooperative breeding involving two females and one male attending a single brood has been recorded at least twice. In both cases, the male provided food to the females who in turn fed the young. Reproductive success generally, depends upon prey abundance, perch density and distribution as well as the proximity of nests to congeners . Weather and its impact on hunting may impact reproductive success.
Nesting densities have been recorded as low as one pair per 18 square miles in sub-optimal Alaskan habitat to as high as one pair per 0.5 square miles in California. The average has been suggested as one pair for every 2.2 square miles. The pair-bond typically is lifelong monogamy. In non-migratory birds, the bond is maintained throughout the year. In the event of a lost mate, acquisition of a new partner can occur quickly and has occurred within one day.
Inter-nest distances vary considerably and have been measured at slightly more than 0.5 miles to as much as 5 miles in one study area in Alaska. Territories may have common boundaries based upon interactions between adjacent pairs of birds.
Clutch Size: 1-3 Length of Incubation: 30-35 days Days to Fledge : 45-46
Red-tails are in the group of "soaring hawks" which is
one of their common behaviors. They use their long, broad wings
effortlessly ride on warm, rising air
. In general, the red-tailed
hawk flaps less than other buteos, except the ferruginous
for red-tails has been estimated at about 40 miles
and air speeds at 55 miles per hour. Soaring is done with the wings
held in a slight dihedral
. It is capable of holding motionless in
the wind (kiting) with no wing beats. During migration, soaring has
been reported to about 3,000 feet (4,800 km
) above ground. Other
reasons for soaring include hunting, exploration, territorial
Hunting strategies are versatile but may be grouped into the following 11 broad categories:
Perch and Wait - this successful technique is used more than 80 percent of the time. Any elevated site may be used but, frequently trees , fence posts, power lines or other man-made structures are used. Ground Pursuit - hopping across the ground in pursuit of invertebrates is often seen in younger birds. Flap or Glide - maintaining an altitude of 200 feet or lower, the birds will quarter over the countryside much like a harrier. This style may be used closer to the ground as the hawks will dodge behind and between bushes, rocks or other obstacles to remain unseen as they approach prey . Hovering - using quickened wing beats in order to maintain position, redtails will survey the ground in search of prey. Soaring - it has been suggested that this is an inefficient, and ineffective, method for hunting, but stoops on potential prey are sometimes made from a high soar. Cooperative Hunting - mated pairs may close in on a quarry and cooperate on the kill. Piracy - the red-tailed hawk has been seen robbing other raptors . Aerial Foraging - birds will occasionally sail in mid-air to catch large flying insects such as grasshoppers. Accipiter Method - often, in combination with the flap-glide flight, the red-tailed hawk will maneuver through stands of conifers in a goshawk-like manner. Falcon Method - the red-tailed hawk has been seen making fast stoops, like a falcon, specifically in pursuit of bats. Carrion Eating - the eating of freshly-killed animals is well-documented.
When swooping on prey, the wings are set into a glide pattern about 15 feet from the animal. At 10 feet, the legs are extended and the final strike usually made with one foot farther ahead than the other. On impact , the bird then drops onto its "heels." The relative impact is less than that of large falcons, the Northern goshawk or even the Cooper's hawk. Small prey is carried to a feeding perch and may be swallowed whole. Birds are beheaded and plucked and larger mammals may be beheaded. If the prey is large, it may be partially dismembered and consumed before being taken to a feeding perch. Caching has been noted. Excess food not consumed at the nest is carried away.
Buteos tend to have separate territories or if they do overlap with another species, behavioral routines are adjusted to minimize interactions . The red-shouldered and red-tailed hawk are intolerant of each other and antagonistic with the red-tailed hawk being more dominant. The red-tailed hawk is also very antagonistic towards the golden eagle in California but little inter-action has been noted on other study sites. The hawk has shown aggression towards the great horned owl but inter-nest distances between the two species have been recorded as close as 100 feet. In a number of studies, where these two species attempted to nest in close proximity, the owl nests tended to be more successful.
During the winter, the red-tailed hawk exhibits varying degrees of aggressive interaction towards each other, in attempts to maintain a winter territory. Behaviors vary from posturing, feather ruffling and eye contact through to full in-flight displays. Most red-tailed hawks typically occur singly or in pairs, except during migration or around aggregated food supplies. Social interactions during these occasions seem to be minimal and the phenomena appear to be related to temporarily favorable environmental conditions as opposed to furthering social functions.
Nesting red-tailed hawks were shown to habituate to helicopter overflights with no apparent decrease in nesting success in one study. Other studies suggest that populations of red-tails that have been exposed to human beings for long periods of time show less aggression towards human intruders than do populations that have had a shorter period of exposure.
Red-tailed Hawks have long bonds with their mate and live together even outside the breeding season . They are very territorial and will use the same hunting and nesting territory throughout their lives. Their territories encompass half a mile to many miles depending on availability of prey, perches , and nest sites.
The red-tails call is usually used in television shows and movies to represent any raptor flying overhead. The common call is a down-slurred scream given in flight or from a perch. Sometimes described as "tsee-eee-arrr", it is hoarse, sibilant and may vary in pitch, reminding one of a cat scream at greater distances . The function is likely territorial . Following a territorial encounter, individuals of mated pairs will utter a loud "chwirk" call. Other notes include a series of low, raspy "hrrrr" sounds , grunting or quacking "gank" calls and hunger calls similar to those of the nestlings. During courtship , a loud "chirk-chirk-chiruk" is given but perhaps this is the "chwirk" of other authors . The young utter soft, peeping notes and as they grow, softer versions of the adult scream as well as two-syllable "klee-uck" calls are given.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Seebohm, 1890
- Sharpe, 1874
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Infraorder: Falconides () - Sharpe, 1874
- Suborder: Accipitres () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Order: Accipitriformes () - Sharpe, 1874
- Superorder: Falconimorphae () - Seebohm, 1890
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1788) • Buteo jamaicensis (J. F. Gmelin, 1788)
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 24-Jun-1996
Rough-Legged Hawk, Swainson's Hawk
Members of the genus Buteo
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 56 species and subspecies in this genus:
B. albicaudatus (Sennett's White-Tailed Hawk) · B. albicaudatus albicaudatus (White-Tailed Hawk) · B. albicaudatus hypospodius (White-Tailed Hawk) · (White-Throated Hawk) · (Zone-Tailed Hawk) · B. albonotatus albonotatus (Band-Tailed Black Hawk) · (Archer's Buzzard) · (Augur Buzzard) · (Red-Necked Buzzard) · (Madagascar Buzzard) · (Short-Tailed Hawk) · (Short-Tailed Hawk) · B. burmanicus (Himalayan Buzzard) · (Common Buzzard (Japonicus)) · (Common Buzzard (Corsican)) · (Common Buzzard (Himalayan)) · (Common Buzzard (Azorean)) · (Galapagos Hawk) · (Upland Buzzard) · (Red-Tailed Hawk) · B. jamaicensis buteo (Red-Tailed (Harlan) Hawk) · B. japonicus japonicus (Eastern Buzzard) · (Rough-Legged Buzzard) · B. lagopus pallidus (Rough-Legged Hawk) · B. leucorrhous (White-Rumped Hawk) · (Red-Shouldered Hawk) · (Red-Shouldered Hawk (Gulf Coast/Texas)) · (Red-Shouldered Hawk (California)) · (Red-Shouldered Hawk (South Florida)) · (Red-Shouldered Hawk (Eastern)) · (Red-Shouldered Hawk) · B. magnirostris (Large-Billed Hawk) · B. magnirostris magnirostris (Roadside Hawk) · B. magnirostris pucherani (Roadside Hawk) · (Gray-Lined Hawk) · B. nitidus maxima (Gray Hawk) · B. nitidus maximus (Gray Hawk) · (Grey-Lined Hawk) · (Mountain Buzzard) · (Gray Hawk) · B. plagiatus plagiatus (Grey Hawk) · (Broad-Winged Hawk (Caribbean)) · (Broad-Winged Hawk (Northern)) · B. poecilochrous (Gurner's Buzzard) · B. polyosoma (Red-Backed Hawk) · B. polyosoma polyosoma (Red-Backed Hawk) · (Ferruginous Hawk) · (Ridgway's Hawk) · (Long-Legged Buzzard) · (Jackal Buzzard) · B. rufofuscus rufofuscus (Jackal Buzzard) · (Socotra Buzzard) · (Hawaiian Hawk) · (Swainson's Hawk) · B. swainsonii (Swainson's Hawk) · (Rufous-Tailed Hawk)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 10, 2008:
- Avian Knowledge Network: eBird
- Avian Knowledge Network: Great Backyard Bird Count
- Avian Knowledge Network: Hawk Migration Association of North America - HawkCount
- Avian Knowledge Network: Project FeederWatch
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen: Biologiezentrum Linz
- Bird Studies Canada: BC Coastal Waterbird Survey
- Bird Studies Canada: Marsh Monitoring Program - Birds
- Bird Studies Canada: Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas 1981-1985
- Bird Studies Canada: Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas 2001-2005
- Borror Laboratory of Bioacoustics
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: North West Territories and Nunavut Bird Checklist, Canada
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Ontario Nest Records
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Birds (Aves)
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility: Royal British Columbia Museum
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Bird Collection
- Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates: Bird Collection
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Bay of Fundy Species List (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: SEAMAP - marine mammals, birds and turtles
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB: Paleobiology Database
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University: MCZ Ornithology Collection
- Museum of Vertebrate Zoology: Terrestrial vertebrate specimens
- New Brunswick Museum: NBM birds
- Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History: Santa Barbara Musem of Natural History
- UNIBIO, IBUNAM: CNAV/Coleccion Nacional de Aves
- University of Alberta: University of Alberta Ornithology Collection
- University of Colorado Museum: Zoological specimens
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology (UMMZ): Bird specimens
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8620
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-175351
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2490700
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 175350
- IUCN ID: 196521
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNKC19110
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 178020