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Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
American goldeneye, brass-eyed whistler, brasseye, bull-head, cobhead, Common Goldeneye, common goldeneye whistler, copperhead, cub-head, European goldeneye, garrot, goldeneye, goldeneyed duck, great-head, iron-head, jingler, merry-wing, sizzle-britches, spirit duck, whiffler, whistle-duck, whistle-wing, Whistler
Common Names in French:
Garrot , garrot à oeil d'or, Garrot à úil d'or, garrot Ã oeil d'or, Garrot sonneur
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hebrew:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Russian:
Gogol, Гоголь обыкновенный, Обыкновенный гоголь
Common Names in Spanish:
Pato Chill, Pato chillÃ³n, Pato chillón, Porrón osculado
Common Names in Swedish:
Adult Female: Head : chocolate brown Ear Tufts: yellowish-white Bill: blackish with yellow-orange tip Neck: Collar : white Body: brownish gray.Adult Male: Head: black with green gloss Ear Tufts: golden Face : Facial Skin : yellow Bill: dark gray Body: Back: black Color: mostly white Legs : Leg Color: yellow.
male alternate: Alternate plumage worn from fall
summer · Glossy greenish head
· White circular patch
below eye on face
· White lower neck, breast, belly and flanks
· Dark back · White scapulars
with black striping
Adult male basic: Similar to adult female
Adult female: Reddish-brown head · Dark-based bill with light patch at tip · Gray body, paler on the breast and darker on the back · White patch on wing split by two dark bands
About 13 to 20 inches long, with a wingspan of 25 to 32 inches. Adults weigh about 35.2 ounces .
Vegetation: freshwater lakes and ponds, freshwater marshes, coastal waters • Maximum Elevation: 2,000 meters • Sensitivity to Disturbance: Medium
Typically found in a lake at a mean distance from sea level of 325 meters (1,066 feet).
Behaviour Most of this species is fully migratory although
it may only travel short distances2, and certain
populations in the north-west of Europe may also be sedentary1.
The species breeds from April in solitary pairs1,
after which it undertakes short northerly moult migrations to coastal
areas, large lakes
and rivers2 to undergo a period
of flightless moult lasting 3-4 weeks (males leave for this moult
migration first while females are still incubating)5.
Large moult gatherings are common during this period, males arriving
at such gatherings in early-June and numbers peaking in late-August
females arrive5. The southward autumn
migration begins in late-August with most arriving in the winter
quarters by early-December5. Females tend to migrate
further than males3, 5 and juveniles
than adults5. The return migration to the breeding
areas occurs as early as mid-February5, the species
timing its arrival to coincide with the thawing and appearance
open water2. Non-breeders may also oversummer on
grounds3. The species is gregarious
of the breeding season2, 6 usually being observed
in small scattered
groups5 or in small flocks on
migration2. Several hundred
individuals may roost
together6 and large flocks often gather to feed
outfalls1 during the winter, although
the species rarely occurs in very large flocks5.
The species is restricted
to water close to the shore
and less than 10 m
deep5 (showing a preference
for waters 4 m deep)6. Breeding When breeding
the species shows a preference for oligotrophic
lakes devoid of fish2
but with abundant invertebrate
life4, and requires
tree-holes (or artificial nestboxes) for nesting1.
Suitable habitats include freshwater
and deep marshes4 surrounded by coniferous
Non-breeding The species winters mainly at sea5
waters1, shallow bays2,
estuaries1 and coastal lagoons1, 5,
especially in the vicinity of sewage outfalls1.
Further to the south and on migration the species may also frequent
, lakes2, 5 and reservoirs5.
The diet of the species consists predominantly of aquatic
such as molluscs
, worms, crustaceans, aquatic insects
and insect larvae1 (e.g.
dragonflies, damsel flies
and may flies)4, as well as amphibians
, small fish1
and some plant material
(mainly in the autumn) such as seeds, roots
and the vegetative
parts of aquatic plants1. Breeding
site The species nests in hollows of mature
(e.g. aspen, spruce or oak)7 formed by woodpeckers
or by bacterial or fungal heart-rot invasions2
that have internal cavity
diameters of c.20 cm (although the height
of the hollow does not seem to be important)4.
The species will preferentially nest
in open stands near
water3, 4 or solitary trees on the edges
rather than in trees in dense stands (to increase the ease of entry
by flying)4. The species will also nest in artificial
information In Scotland,
UK the introduction of a sewage treatment scheme in the Firth
Forth (a large marine
) resulted in a considerable reduction in
of the species, with feeding flocks only remaining
where sewage continued to be discharged in large quantities9.
It was unclear whether the changes in the species's distribution
were due to reductions in the number of food items borne in the sewage
or to reductions in aquatic invertebrate abundance as a result of
the new treatment system9. In some areas nestbox
erection programmes have been shown to cause significant range
and population increases1, 11, although an experiment
in southern Finland found that even though nestbox provision
breeding numbers of the species there was a negative
effect on reproductive output (i.e.
the number of fledged young did
not increase despite an increase in breeding pairs)10.
Nesting habitats in general may also benefit from a more extended
rotation of timber harvesting2.
List of Habitats:
- 1 Forest
- 1.1 Forest - Boreal
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps , Fens , Peatlands
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 9 Marine Neritic
- 9.2 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
- 9.3 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel
- 9.4 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy
- 9.5 Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy-Mud
- 9.7 Marine Neritic - Macroalgal/Kelp
- 9.9 Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
- 9.10 Marine Neritic - Estuaries [more info]
- Breeding Habitat : Wetland-open water
- Nest Type : Cavity
- Clutch Size: 5-15
- Length of Incubation : 28-32 days
- Days to Fledge : 56-60
- Number of Broods: 1
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Sibley et al., 1988
- Wagler, 1831
- Suborder: Anseres () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758) Wagler, 1831
- Order: Anseriformes () - Wagler, 1831
- Superorder: Galloanserimorphae () - Sibley et al., 1988
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Bucephala clangula (Linnaeus, 1758) • Bucephala clangula Linnaeus 1758
Members of the genus Bucephala
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species and subspecies in this genus:
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- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 26, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, North West Territories and Nunavut Bird Checklist, Canada
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Ontario Nest Records
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Birds
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Royal British Columbia Museum
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Terrestrial vertebrate specimens
- New Brunswick Museum, NBM birds
- Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara Musem of Natural History
- University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
- , Bird specimens
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 11758
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-175143
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 3085810
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 175141
- IUCN ID: 196223
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNJB18010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 6870
- Standard Deviation = 439.520 based on 20,000 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- BirdLife International 2009. Bucephala clangula. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 January 2012. [back]