Common Names in English:
'The Saturniidae are members
of the Superfamily
. These species are medium to very large in size, and this family
includes the largest moths in North America. Adults
have a wingspan of 3 to 15 centimeters, relatively small heads
, and densely hairy
bodies. Larvae are usually very fleshy
, with clumps
of raised bristles
moth and Io
moth caterpillars have sharp, stinging
. Caterpillars mostly feed
on leaves of trees
; some cause severe damage. Pupa develop in silken cocoons
or in the soil. This family does not contain the commercial
silkworm moth (Bombyx mori), which is not native
to North America.
The buck and io moths are members of the Family Saturniidae. Adults of these species have wingspans of 4.5 to 8 cm, hairy bodies, and relatively small heads . Caterpillars have sharp, stinging hairs , and feed on leaves of trees and shrubs . Some buck and io moths pupate in a well-built silken cocoon .
Species Automeris io
Upperside occasionally males from the spring brood will be mostly brown. Female forewings are brown or brownish purple to red and the bands and eyespots may or may not be apparent. Hindwings of both sexes are yellow to brownish orange with yellow or orange margins . Each hindwing has a large black and blue eyespot with a white dash in the middle . (ref. 106117)
Upperside occasionally males from the spring brood will be mostly brown. Female forewings are brown or brownish purple to red and the bands and eyespots may or may not be apparent. Hindwings of both sexes are yellow to brownish orange with yellow or orange margins . Each hindwing has a large black and blue eyespot with a white dash in the middle .
Wing span : 2 - 3 1/8 inches (5 - 8 cm).
Caterpillar hosts: A variety of plants including hackberry (Celtis), willow (Salix), mesquite (Prosopis), redbud (Cercis), currant (Ribes), blackberry (Rubus), and pear (Pyrus). Adult food: Adults do not feed .
Adults emerge during late morning or early afternoon, and mating takes place in the late evening. Females lay clumps of eggs on leaves or stems of the host plants . Young caterpillars feed together as a group and move in long "trains" while older caterpillars feed alone. Papery cocoons are spun in litter under the host plant or in crevices.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Butterflies and Moths
- Infraorder: Heteroneura ()
- Order: Lepidoptera () - Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Members of the genus Automeris
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 7 species and subspecies in this genus:
A. cecrops (Cecrops Eyed Silkmoth) · A. io (Io Moth) · A. iris (Iris Eyed Silkmoth) · A. louisiana (Louisiana Eyed Silkmoth) · A. patagoniensis (Patagonia Eyed Silkmoth) · A. randa (Randa's Eyed Silkmoth) · A. zephyria (Zephyr Eyed Silkmoth)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A bibliography of the writings of Professor Mark Vernon Slingerland / by M. D. Leonard. Ithaca: Cornell University, 1914. url p. 627.
- A hand-book to the order Lepidoptera. By W.F. Kirby. .. London, E. Lloyd, limited, 1896-1897. url .
- A manual for the study of insects / by John Henry Comstock and Anna Botsford Comstock. Ithaca, N.Y.: The Comstock Pub. Co., 1920. url p. 680.
- A manual for the study of insects, by John Henry Comstock. .. and Anna Botsford Comstock. .. Ithaca, N.Y., Comstock Publishing Company, 1916 [c1895] url p. 351, p. 680.
- A manual for the study of insects. Rev. ed. By John Henry Comstock, and Anna Botsford Comstock, and Glenn W. Herrick. Ithaca, N. Y., Comstock Pub. Co., 1930. url p. 251, p. 386.
- A manual of the study of insects, Ithaca, N.Y.: Comstock publishing company, 1895. url p. 351, p. 680.
- A natural history of the British Lepidoptera: a text-book for students and collectors / by J.W. Tutt. London: S. Sonnenschein, 1899-1904. url p. 48.
- A natural history of the British butterflies; their world-wide variation and geographical distribution. A text-book for students and collectors. London: E. Stock, [19--?] url p. 48, p. 553.
- Agriculture of Maine: . .. annual report of the Commissioner of Agriculture of the State of Maine. Augusta: [State of Maine, Dept. of Agriculture, 1903-1940.] url , p. 212, p. 227.
- American insects / by Vernon L. Kellogg. New York: Holt, 1904. url , p. 424, p. 425, p. 426.
- American insects, by Vernon L. Kellogg. .. with many original illustrations by Mary Wellman. New York, H. Holt and Company, 1908. url , p. 424, p. 425, p. 426, p. 426, p. 671.
- American insects, ill. by Mary Wellman. New York, Holt, 1914. url , p. 424, p. 426, p. 671.
- An introduction to entomology, by John Henry Comstock. .. Ithaca, N.Y., The Comstock publishing co., 1920. url p. 100, p. 100, p. 722.
- An introduction to entomology. Ithaca, N.Y., Comstock, 1949. url p. 722.
- Annals - Entomological Society of America. [College Park, Md., etc.]Entomological Society of America. url p. 297, p. 299, p. 391.
- Annals of the Carnegie Museum. [Pittsburgh]: Published by authority of the Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Institute, 1901- url p. 39.
- Annals of the Entomological Society of America. [College Park, Md., etc.]: Entomological Society of America. url p. 103, p. 156, p. 297, p. 299, p. 391.
- Annual report / Albany: University of the State of New York, 1902-1918. url , p. 102, p. 105, p. 106, p. 119, p. 74, p. 97.
- Annual report / Entomological Society of Ontario. Toronto, The Society. url p. 113.
- Annual report / New York State Museum. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, c1904-1920. url p. 424, p. 558, p. 558, p. 72.
- Annual report of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station. [Orono, Me.: Maine State College, 1885-1953. url p. 205, p. 210, p. 234, p. 245, p. 7.
- Annual report of the Regents / Albany: J.B. Lyon, State Printer, 1890-1903. url p. 1040, p. 267, p. 417, p. 487, p. 593.
- Applied entomology; an introductory text-book of insects in their relations to man, New York [etc.]McGraw-Hill book company, inc., 1921. url p. 286, p. 375.
- Bibliography of the more important contributions to American economic entomology. Washington: Govt. print. off., 1889-1905. url p. 102.
- Biltmore lectures on sylviculture / by C. A. Schenck. Albany, N.Y.: Brandow Printing Co., 1907. url p. 153.
- Bulletin - New York State Museum. Albany: New York State Education Dept. url p. 102, p. 1040, p. 105, p. 224, p. 267, p. 437, p. 487, p. 558, p. 559, p. 568, p. 593, p. 610, p. 623, p. 636, p. 817, p. 884, p. 893.
- Bulletin / Illinois Natural History Survey. Urbana, State of Illinois, Dept. of Registration and Education, Natural History Survey Division, 1918-1985. url p. 154.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology. Washington: G.P.O., 1904-1916. url .
- Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New YorkAmerican Museum of Natural History1881- url , p. 310, p. 438.
- Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn, N.Y.: The Society, url p. 152, p. 31, p. 70.
- Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. 87 1941 Cambridge, Mass.: The Museum, 1863- url p. 475.
- Bulletin. [Hanover, N.H.]: New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station, 1888-1948. url p. 260.
- Bush-fruits: a horticultural monograph of raspberries, blackberries, dewberries, currants, gooseberries, and other shrub-like fruits / by Fred W. Card. New York: Macmillan, 1909, c1989. url p. 280, p. 431.
- Bush-fruits; a horticultural monograph of raspberries, blackberries, dewberries, currants, gooseberries, and other shrub-like fruits, by Fred W. Card. New York, Macmillan, 1907. url p. 280, p. 431, p. 517.
- Catalog of hymenoptera in America north of Mexico / prepared cooperatively by specialists on the various groups of Hymenoptera under the direction of Karl V. Krombein. .. [et al.]. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979- url , p. 248, p. 677, p. 702.
- Class book of economic entomology, Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's son & co.[c1919] url p. 180, p. 417.
- Common Illinois insects: and why they are interesting. Springfield, Il.: Dept. of Registration and Education, 1951. url p. 27.
- Concealing-coloration in the animal kingdom; an exposition of the laws of disguise through color and pattern: being a summary of Abbott H. Thayer's discoveries, New York, The Macmillan Co., 1909. url .
- Contents and index of the reports of the State entomologist of Illinois. Stephen A. Forbes. [Urbana?]: The State, 1909. url p. 44.
- Cooperative economic insect report. Hyattsville, MD. [etc.]Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs Animal and Plant Health Service. url p. 11, p. 1126, p. 1145, p. 1209, p. 15, p. 16, p. 19, p. 219, p. 258, p. 446, p. 5, p. 5, p. 5, p. 5, p. 650, p. 694, p. 7, p. 730, p. 812, p. 834, p. 874, p. 915, p. 917, p. 976, p. 996.
- Destructive insects affecting Ohio shade and forest trees / J. S. Houser. Wooster, Ohio: Experiment Station, 1918 url , , , , , , , , , , p. 270.
- Economic entomology for the farmer and fruit-grower, Philadelphia and London, J. B. Lippincott company[c1906] url p. 284, p. 462.
- Elementary entomology, Boston, Ginn and company[c1912] url p. 213, p. 363.
- Elementary entomology, by E. Dwight Sanderson. .. and C.F. Jackson. Boston, Ginn and Company[c1912] url p. 363.
- Entomological news, and proceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia[Entomological Rooms of the Academy of Natural Sciences] url , , , , , p. 125, p. 172, p. 199, p. 239, p. 324, p. 333, p. 370, p. 403, p. 403, p. 460, p. 89.
- Entomological news. [Philadelphia]American Entomological Society, 1925- url , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , p. 181, p. 220, p. 303, p. 317, p. 320, p. 33, p. 333, p. 336, p. 339, p. 34, p. 35, p. 38, p. 94.
- Entomology, with special reference to its ecological aspects, by Justus Watson Folsom. .. Philadelphia, P. Blakiston's Son & Co.[c1922] url p. 246.
- Entomology: with special reference to its ecological aspects / by Justus Watson Folsom. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son, c1922. url p. 246.
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url p. 248.
- Fauna of New England. Boston, Printed for the [Boston] Society [of Natural History] from the Gurdon Saltonstall Fund, 1904-25. url p. 196.
- Field Museum of Natural History bulletin. Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, -c1990. url p. 17, p. 17.
- Field book of insects, with special reference to those of northeastern United States, aiming to answer common questions, by Frank E. Lutz. New York, G. P. Putnam, c1921. url .
- Field book of insects: with special reference to those of north-eastern United States, aiming to answer common questions / London: G. P. Putnam, 1921. url , p. 496.
- Forest protection; guide to lectures delivered at the Biltmore Forest School, Asheville, N.C., The Inland Press, 1909. url p. 153.
- General index to reports of the State Entomologist of Connecticut, 1901-1925 / New Haven: Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 1926. url p. 676, p. 691.
- Guide to the insects of Connecticut, prepared under the direction of Wilton Everett Britton. Hartford, Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1911-42. url .
- Handbook of medical entomology / Wm. A. Riley and O.A. Johannsen. Ithaca, N.Y.: Comstock Pub. Co., 1915. url p. 341, p. 47.
- Handbook of medical entomology Ithaca, N. Y., The Comstock Publishing Company, 1915. url , .
- Handbook of medical entomology [by] Wm. A. Riley. .. and O. A. Johannsen. .. Ithaca, N.Y., The Comstock publishing company, 1915. url p. 341, p. 47.
- Hymenoptera of America north of Mexico: synoptic catalog, second supplement / prepared by the staff and collaborators of the Hymenoptera Unit, Insect Identification and Parasite Introduction Research Branch, Entomology Research Division, Agricultural Research Service, under the Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1967. url p. 41.
- Illinois biological monographs. Urbana, Univ. of Illinois Press. url p. 164.
- Index to the literature of American economic entomology. Melrose Highlands, Mass. [etc.], American Association of Economic Entomologists [etc.], 1917-62. url p. 169, p. 182, p. 45, p. 47.
- Insect life: an introduction to nature-study and a guide for teachers, students, and others interested in out-of-door life. New YorkD. Appleton1897 url p. 189, p. 343.
- Insect life; an introduction to nature study and a guide for teachers, students and others interested in out-of-door life, New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1901. url , , , p. 189, p. 343.
- Insects affecting park and woodland trees / by Ephraim Porter Felt. Albany: New York State Education Dept., 1905-1906. url p. 807, p. 807, p. 826, p. 826.
- Insects injurious to the household and annoying to man, by Glenn W. Herrick. .. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1914. url , p. 428.
- Journal of agricultural research. Washington, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1913-1949.. url p. 477.
- Journal of economic entomology. [College Park, Md., etc.]Entomological Society of America [etc.] url p. 15, p. 247, p. 497.
- Journal of entomology and zoology. Claremont, Calif., U.S.A.: Pomona College Dept. of Zoology, [1913- url p. 101, p. 101, p. 106, p. 106.
- Journal of the New York Entomological Society. Lawrence, Kan.: Allen Press [etc.] url , , , p. 131, p. 132, p. 19.
- Memoir / Ithaca, N.Y. url p. 1073, p. 11, p. 1133, p. 12, p. 13, p. 670.
- Memoirs of the American Entomological Society. Philadelphia, American Entomological Society, 1916- url p. 743, p. 794.
- Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1866- url , , , , , p. 100, p. 101, p. 113, p. 118, p. 119, p. 121, p. 134, p. 135, p. 267, p. 268, p. 314, p. 316, p. 384, p. 503, p. 78, p. 96, p. 97, p. 99.
- Memorial of life and entomologic work of Joseph Albert Lintner, state entomologist, 1874-98, by Ephraim Porter Felt. Albany: University of the State of New York, 1899. url p. 312, p. 417, p. 487, p. 593.
- Museum bulletin / Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1908-1916. url p. 119, p. 74.
- Natural history. New York url .
- Nature sketches in temperate America, a series of sketches and a popular account of insects, birds, and plants, treated from some aspects of their evolution and ecological relations, Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co., 1911. url , , , , .
- New York State Museum bulletin. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1916-1944. url p. 69, p. 72, p. 97.
- Occasional papers of the Boston Society of Natural History. Boston, Boston Society of Natural History, 1869-1941. url p. 196.
- On the recent secular period of the aurora borealis. By Denison Olmsted. Washington, Smithsonian Institution, 1856 url , p. 160, p. 435, p. 443, p. 445.
- Pamphlets on forestry in Ohio. [1900?- url p. 270, p. 416, p. 475, p. 476, p. 477, p. 478, p. 480, p. 481, p. 484, p. 485, p. 486, p. 487.
- Popular science monthly. New York: D. Appleton, 1872-1950. url p. 201.
- Proceedings - Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. Staten Island, N.Y., Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences. url , p. 13, p. 16, p. 204.
- Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia url p. 295, p. 311, p. 311, p. 325, p. 325, p. 326, p. 326, p. 699, p. 699.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 112, p. 181, p. 196, p. 335.
- Proceedings of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London [Eng]: South London Entomological and Natural history Society, [1897-1933] url p. 107, p. 129, p. 146, p. 162, p. 87.
- Proceedings of the United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.] url p. 101, p. 23, p. 24, p. 3, p. 4, p. 44, p. 570, p. 571, p. 612.
- Psyche. Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge Entomological Club url , , p. 31, p. 32, p. 59.
- Report of the State Entomologist of Connecticut for the year. .. New Haven, [1902- url , , p. 150, p. 159, p. 237, p. 309, p. 399.
- Report of the State Entomologist on injurious and other insects of the state of New York. Albany: Weed, Parsons and Co.; University of the State of New York, 1882- url p. 102, p. 1040, p. 105, p. 106, p. 224, p. 267, p. 558, p. 559, p. 568, p. 610, p. 623, p. 636, p. 649, p. 72, p. 884.
- Report of the state entomologist on the noxious and beneficial insects of the state of Illinois. Springfield, Ill.: State Entomologist, -1916. url .
- Sanitary entomology; the entomology of disease, hygiene and sanitation, Boston, R. G. Badger url .
- Science-gossip. Berlin: R. Friedländer & Sohn, -1902. url p. 303.
- Science. New York, N.Y.: [s.n.]1880- url p. 544, p. 842.
- The Biological bulletin. Woods Hole, Mass.: Marine Biological Laboratory, url p. 241.
- The Bulletin of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture. Raleigh: State Board of Agriculture, [1907- url p. 56.
- The Canadian entomologist. Ottawa [etc.]Entomological Society of Canada [etc.] url p. 364, p. 89.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 197, p. 87.
- The Ecology of arboreal folivores: a symposium held at the Conservation and Research Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, May 29-31, 1975 / Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1978. url p. 91.
- The Lepidopteras of New York and neighboring states, primitive forms Microlepidoptera, Pyraloids, Bombyces. Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell Univ., 1920. url p. 11, p. 13.
- The Lepidopterist. Salem, Mass.: Boston Entomological Club, 1916-. url p. 40, p. 48.
- The Lepidopterists' news: the monthly newsletter of the Lepidopterists' Society. Cambridge, Mass.: Lepidopterists' Society, 1947-1958. url p. 12, p. 48, p. 59, p. 85.
- The Natural history of the Toronto Region, Ontario, Canada / edited by J.H. Faull. -- Toronto: Canadian Institute, 1913. url p. 355.
- The Ottawa naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url .
- The Review of applied entomology. Farnham Royal, Eng., etc.: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, etc. url p. 268.
- The University of Kansas science bulletin. 44 1963 [Lawrence]: University of Kansas, 1902-1996. url p. 667.
- The butterfly book; a popular guide to a knowledge of the butterflies of North America. By W.J. Holland. .. With 48 plates in color-photography, reproductions of butterflies in the author's collection, and many text illustrations presenting most of the species found in the United States. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page & Co., 1914. url , , p. 89.
- The classification of lepidopterous larvae, with ten plates, by Stanley Black Fracker. Urbana, University of Illinois, c1915 url p. 164.
- The insect fauna of the genus Crataegus. .. Ithaca, 1922 url p. 1073, p. 1133.
- The moth book: a popular guide to a knowledge of the moths of North America / by W.J. Holland. New York: Doubleday, Page, 1915. url , p. 16, p. 89.
- The moth book; a popular guide to a knowledge of the moths of North America. .. With forty-eight plates in color photography and numerous illustrations in the text, reproducing specimens in the collection of the author, and in various public and private collections. 1916 Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Page & company, 1916. url p. 89, explanation of plate IX, p. xvi.
- The natural history of the Toronto region, Ontario, Canada / edited by J.H. Faull. Toronto: Canadian Institute, 1913. url p. 355.
- Transactions of the American Entomological Society Philadelphia: The Society, 1890- url p. 155, p. 171.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 28, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 2 providers.
- LepIndex: The Global Lepidoptera Names Index. Release date: June 15, 2005
- Opler, Paul A., Harry Pavulaan, Ray E. Stanford, Michael Pogue, coordinators. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Mountain Prairie Information Node. March 26, 2007.
- Opler, Paul A., Kelly Lotts, and Thomas Naberhaus, coordinators. 2009. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Big Sky Institute. http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ (Version of April 17, 2009).
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 28, 2008:
- Illinois Natural History Survey
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (Costa Rica): Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2605322
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Lep-65911.0
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: IILEW0N020
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 171368