Common Names in English:
White-clawed Crayfish, Atlantic Stream Crayfish, River Crayfish, White-footed Crayfish
Typically found in a lake at a mean distance from sea level of 129 meters (424 feet).
This is a freshwater
species which can be found under submerged cobbles
, and amongst fallen leaves in permanent water
bodies such as canals, streams
quarries (Holdich 2003). Recently it has been found that A. pallipes
can tolerate muddy habitats
if tree roots or other woody habitats
are available (Holdich et al.
banks and overhanging vegetation have been highlighted as
important features in determining crayfish abundance
(Naura and Robinson
1998). It may also be found in large numbers in waters dominated
by Chara sp.
et al. 2006). This species
and hydrological change. Waters containing
this species tend to be in the pH range
7-9, with calcium
levels above 5 mg l-1. This species occurs in areas with
relatively hard, mineral-rich waters on calcareous
and rapidly weathering
rocks. A study from Western France (Trouilhé et
al. 2008) found the site harbouring the largest A.
pallipes population had a dissolved oxygen
low as 4.93 mg/L, while water temperature
rose above 20°C for several
consecutive days during summer. Nitrate concentrations were always
found to be above 30mg/L. Principal component
that an increase of organic
matter was a discriminant factor
the presence or absence of this species
(Trouilhé et al. 2008).
It can live for more than 10 years, and usually reaches sexual maturity after three to four years. It will carry 20-160 eggs , but usually less than 100 (Holdich 2003).
Declines in this keystone species are said to negatively impact both ecosystem structure and function within freshwater environments through loss of: a) provisioning services – food production from fisheries, recreational fishing , b ) regulatory and support services – trophic cascades , water purification, nutrient cycling, primary productivity, c) cultural value – recreational fishing, education, heritage. Crayfish are also an important food source to a range of species including otters , salmonids , and birds such as kingfishers (Kettunen and ten Brink 2006)..
List of Habitats:
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 5.7 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 15 Artificial/Aquatic & Marine
- 15.1 Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
- 15.9 Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels , Ditches [more info]
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- (Chernyshev, 1960)
- Pennant, 1777
- Latreille, 1802
- Grobben, 1892
- Calman, 1904
- Latreille, 1802
- Suborder: Pleocyemata () - Burkenroad, 1963
- Order: Decapoda () - Latreille, 1802 - Decapods
- Superorder: Eucarida () - Calman, 1904
- Subclass: Eumalacostraca () - Grobben, 1892
- Class: Crustacea () - Latreille, 1802 - Crustaceans
- Epiclass: Eucrustacea ()
- Superclass: Crustacea () - Pennant, 1777 - Crustaceans
- Infraphylum: Crustaceomorpha () - (Chernyshev, 1960)
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Astacus pallipes • Atlantoastacus orientalis • Atlantoastacus orientalis carinthiacus • Atlantoastacus pallipes rhodanicus • Austropotamobius (Atlanoastacus) pallipes lusitanicus • Austropotamobius (Atlantoastacus) berndhauseri
Some consider Austropotamobius pallipes as a species complex comprised of two genetically distinct species; A. pallipes and an Italian species for which the name is being discussed. The Italian species is thought to be comprised of a number of subspecies , though this depends on the author . Both the Italian form and A. pallipes can be found in Spain, France, Italy and Switzerland. It is also suggested that there are two subspecies of A. pallipes: A. pallipes pallipes which exists in France, the British Isles, Spain, Switzerland, and Germany, and A. p. subsp. nov. which is known from Liguria in Italy and the Alpes Maritimes region of France. There still exists some debate as to whether the Italian form should be raised to species level, though recent genetic work (Grandjean et al. 2000a, Fratini et al. 2005, Bertocchi et al. 2008) would support a separate species, Austropotamobius italicus with 4 subspecies.
Members of the genus Austropotamobius
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 2 species and subspecies in this genus:
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- 1994 IUCN red list of threatened animals Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1993 url p. 157.
- A reconnaissance of crayfish populations in western Montana / Helena, Mont.: Montana Dept. of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks, 1989 url p. 14.
- California fish and game. [San Francisco, etc.]: State of California, Resources Agency, Dept. of Fish and Game. url p. 178, p. 182, p. 183, p. 255, p. 67.
- Checklists for the CORINE Biotopes Programme and its application in the PHARE countries of Central and East Europe: including comparisons with relevant conventions and agreements on the conservation of European species and habitats EC url p. 109, p. 16.
- Fishery bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service: url p. 296, p. 298.
- Insects and other invertebrates as candidates for the Bern Convention IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url p. 219, p. 5.
- Invertebrates in need of special protection in Europe Council of Europe url p. 104, p. 162.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 692.
- Spixiana. München: Zoologische Staatssammlung München, 1977- url , p. 135, p. 137, p. 138, p. 144, p. 288, p. 77.
- The Biological bulletin. Woods Hole, Mass.: Marine Biological Laboratory, url p. 383, p. 385, p. 390, p. 392, p. 401, p. 408, p. 445, p. 48, p. 53, p. 582, p. 590, p. 79.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 54 1994 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 169.
- The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book IUCN url p. 266, p. 29, p. 294, p. 297, p. 298, p. 300, p. 301, p. 37, p. 38, p. 40, p. 41, p. 42, p. 618.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 9, 2012.
- Füreder, L., Gherardi, F., Holdich, D., Reynolds, J., Sibley, P. & Souty-Grosset, C. 2010. Austropotamobius pallipes. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 30January2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal December 02, 2007:
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Biological Records Centre - Crayfish
- data for Britain and Ireland to 2003
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5434520
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2468095
- IUCN ID: 193656
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 486
- Standard Deviation = 149.890 based on 7,657 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Füreder, L., Gherardi, F., Holdich, D., Reynolds, J., Sibley, P. & Souty-Grosset, C. 2010. Austropotamobius pallipes. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 January 2012. [back]