'The Nymphalidae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Distributed worldwide, butterflies of this family
are especially rich in the tropics. They are highly variable, and there are more species in this family than in any other. Adults
vary in size from small to large, and their front legs
are reduced, unable to be used for walking. Wing
is also highly variable: some species have irregular margins
(anglewings and commas), and others have long taillike projections (daggerwings). Browns, oranges, yellows, and blacks are frequent colors, while iridescent
colors such as purples and blues are rare. Adults of some groups are the longest-lived butterflies, surviving 6-11 months. Adult feeding behavior depends on the species, where some groups primarily seek flower nectar while others only feed
, rotting fruit, dung, or animal carcasses. Males exhibit
behaviors when seeking mates. Egg-laying
varies widely, as some species lay eggs
in clustsers, others in columns, and others singly. Caterpillar appearance
and behavior vary widely. Brushfoots overwinter
as larvae or adults.
The Limenitidinae are members of the Family Nymphalidae. These admirals and relatives are found on most continents. Adults of most genera are characterized by their flap-and-glide flight. Caterpillar and chrysalis structure defines this group.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Superorder: Panorpida ()
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Class: Insecta () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Insects
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Members of the genus Athyma
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species and subspecies in this genus:
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- A catalogue of the lepidopterous insects in the museum of the Hon. East-India company. By Thomas Horsfield. .. and Frederic Moore. .. London, W.H. Allen and Co., 1857-59. url p. 171.
- Butterflies. Vol. I-II. / Calcutta and Simla, Taylor and Francis;1905-1907. url p. 317.
- Catalogue of the collection of palaearctic butterflies formed by the late John Henry Leech, and presented to the trustees of the British Museum by his mother, Mrs. Eliza Leech, LondonPrinted order of the Trustees1902 url p. 62.
- Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. London: Academic Press, [etc.], 1833-1965. url p. 241, p. 241.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url p. 374, p. 61.
- The butterflies of India, Burmah and Ceylon. A descriptive handbook of all the known species of rhopalocerous Lepidoptera inhabiting that region, with notices of allied species occurring in the neighbouring countries along the border; with numer By Major G.F.L. Marshall. .. and Lionel de Nicéville. .. The illustrations drawn by Babu Gris Chunder Chuckerbutty and Babu Behari Lall Dass. The wood engravings by George Pearson. The autotype plates Calcutta: Central Press Co., ld., 1882-90. url p. 168, p. 169.
- Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. London, The Society. url p. 283, p. 284.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 17, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3386322
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 14765937
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 2659988