'The Nymphalidae are members
of the Superfamily
Papilionoidea, the true butterflies. Distributed worldwide, butterflies of this family
are especially rich in the tropics. They are highly variable, and there are more species in this family than in any other. Adults
vary in size from small to large, and their front legs
are reduced, unable to be used for walking. Wing
is also highly variable: some species have irregular margins
(anglewings and commas), and others have long taillike projections (daggerwings). Browns, oranges, yellows, and blacks are frequent colors, while iridescent
colors such as purples and blues are rare. Adults of some groups are the longest-lived butterflies, surviving 6-11 months. Adult feeding behavior depends on the species, where some groups primarily seek flower nectar while others only feed
, rotting fruit, dung, or animal carcasses. Males exhibit
behaviors when seeking mates. Egg-laying
varies widely, as some species lay eggs
in clustsers, others in columns, and others singly. Caterpillar appearance
and behavior vary widely. Brushfoots overwinter
as larvae or adults.
Longwings are members of the Family Nymphalidae. They are richest in the tropics, but several genera are prominent in the Northern Hermisphere, including the fritillaries or silverspots and the lesser fritillaries. The adults of several species are distasteful, and many other species mimic the distasteful butterflies of this subfamily . Adults are long-lived, with some as long as six months. Males patrol in search of females. The adults of genus Heliconius are unique in that they intentionally collect pollen in their proboscis and then absorb its proteins.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Latreille, 1829
- Snodgrass, 1938
- Heymons, 1901
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- Order: Lepidoptera () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Butterflies and Moths
- Superorder: Panorpida ()
- Cohort: Myoglossata ()
- Infraclass: Pterygota ()
- Subclass: Dicondylia ()
- Class: Insecta () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - Insects
- Epiclass: Hexapoda ()
- Superclass: Panhexapoda ()
- Infraphylum: Atelocerata () - Heymons, 1901
- Subphylum: Mandibulata () - Snodgrass, 1938
- Phylum: Arthropoda () - Latreille, 1829 - Arthropods
- Superphylum: Panarthropoda () - Cuvier
- Infrakingdom: Ecdysozoa () - A.M.A. Aguinaldo et al., 1997 ex T. Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Protostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Members of the genus Argynnis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species and subspecies in this genus:
A. adippe (High Brown Fritillary) · A. adippe adippe (High Brown Fritillary) · A. aglaja (Dark Green Fritillary) · A. cybele (Great Spangled Fritillary) · A. elisa (Corsican Fritillary) · A. laodice (Eastern Silverstripe) · A. lathonia (Queen of Spain Fritillary) · A. niobe (Niobe Fritillary) · A. pandora (Mediterranean Fritillary) · A. paphia (Silver-Washed Fritillary) · A. paphia paphia (Silver-Washed Fritillary)
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- A catalogue of the lepidopterous insects in the museum of the Hon. East-India company. By Thomas Horsfield. .. and Frederic Moore. .. London, W.H. Allen and Co., 1857-59. url p. 156.
- Butterflies. Vol. I-II. / Calcutta and Simla, Taylor and Francis;1905-1907. url p. 433.
- Proceedings of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London [Eng]: South London Entomological and Natural history Society, [1897-1933] url p. 102.
- Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 18 1895 Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.] url p. 276.
- Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. London: Academic Press, [etc.], 1833-1965. url p. 267, p. 362, p. 362, p. 495.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 138.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url p. 372, p. 670.
- The Macrolepidoptera of the world; a systematic description of the hitherto known Macrolepidoptera, ed. in collaboration with well-known specialists. Stuttgart: Seitz'schen (Kernen), 1906- url p. 240.
- The butterflies of India, Burmah and Ceylon. A descriptive handbook of all the known species of rhopalocerous Lepidoptera inhabiting that region, with notices of allied species occurring in the neighbouring countries along the border; with numer By Major G.F.L. Marshall. .. and Lionel de Nicéville. .. The illustrations drawn by Babu Gris Chunder Chuckerbutty and Babu Behari Lall Dass. The wood engravings by George Pearson. The autotype plates Calcutta: Central Press Co., ld., 1882-90. url p. 134.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 17, 2012.