Mallards, the ancestor of almost all breeds of domestic ducks, are the most recognized and widely distributed waterfowl in the world. Occupying fresh and brackish waters, especially in wetlands, they also utilize agricultural fields near water as habitat . They are dabbling ducks which means they do not dive underwater for food but feed at or just below the surface, upending in shallow water to get at morsels in the mud bottom .
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
duck, Common Mallard, common wild duck, curly-tail, domestic duck, english duck, French duck, gray duck, gray mallard, green-headed duck, greenhead, Mallard, mallard duck, mallard ducks, Mexican duck, New Mexican duck, Northern Mallard, stock duck
Common Names in French:
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hebrew:
Common Names in Italian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Anade real, Azulón, Pato de collar
Common Names in Swedish:
Adult Female: Face : Facial Skin : orange Bill: orange and black mottled Legs : Leg Color: orange Wings : Speculum: metallic blue-violet with white borders Tail: white.Adult Male: Head : shiny green Face: Facial Skin: orange Bill: yellow Neck: Collar : narrow white ring Body: Back: gray brown Breast: purple chestnut Color: pale gray Sides: white Underparts: white Legs: Leg Color: orange Wings: Speculum: metallic blue-violet with white borders Tail: white Shape : 2 curled up black tail feathers..
These birds require shallow water habitats for feeding such as streams , ponds , lakes , marshes, swamps , wetlands, and flooded fields . The water can be fresh or brackish . Although not a preferred habitat, these birds are seen in saltwater marinas but not in the open ocean. They also need dry land for nesting and resting. In Southern California they can occasionally be found nesting in urban gardens under shrubbery.
Vegetation: freshwater lakes and ponds, freshwater marshes • Maximum Elevation: 1,000 meters • Foraging Strata: Water • Center of Abundance: Lower subtropical: lowlands, lower than 500 m.; subtropics. • Sensitivity to Disturbance: Low
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,215 meters (0 to 10,548 feet).
Behaviour In temperate regions
breeding populations of this species
or dispersive, often making local movements during
severe weather5. Other populations are fully migratory2
with females and juveniles
leaving the breeding grounds
in the western
from Septemberand returning as early as February5.
The species breeds between March and June3 in single
pairs or loose
groups1 although the exact timing
varies with latitude3. While the females are incubating4
(from mid-May)5, 6 the males gather3
in small flocks and migrate to moulting areas6
where they undergo a flightless moulting period lasting for c.4 weeks5
(females moult near the breeding grounds)6. Outside
of the breeding season
the species can be found in small to very
large flocks3 numbering up to several hundreds
or even thousands of individuals7 especially when
moulting5, on migration7 and
during the winter2. The species may also roost
both nocturnally and diurnally in communal
groups when not breeding8.
Habitat The species occurs in almost every wetland type1
although it generally avoids fast-flowing, oligotrophic1,
5, 7, deep, exposed, rough, rockbound waters and hard unvegetated
areas such as rocky ground
dunes and artificial surfacing7.
It requires water less than 1 m
deep for foraging7
and shows a preference for freshwater
although it may frequent shallow brackish waters as long as they
provide the cover1, 5 of submerged, floating, emergent
vegetation, dense reedbeds or overhanging branches7.
commonly frequented include flooded swampy woodlands, seasonal
floodlands7, wet grassy swamps
and meadows, oxbow
lakes6, open waters
, banks or spits
waters1, 5, 7,
canals and sewage
farms7. During the winter the
species may also be found in saline habitats along the coast3
where water is shallow, fairly sheltered and within site of land7
lagoons7, brackish estuaries1,
7 and bays1). Diet The species
and opportunistic1, 7, feeding by
in water and by grazing on the land7.
consists of seeds and the vegetative
parts of aquatic
)1, as well as terrestrial
and aquatic invertebrates (especially in the spring
and summer) such
as insects, molluscs
, crustaceans, worms and occasionally amphibians
and fish1. Breeding site The nest
is a shallow
depression7 or bowl
of vegetation that can be situated
in many different locations such as within vegetation on the ground,
in natural tree
cavities1 up to 10 m high (Africa)8,
under fallen dead wood
, on tree stumps6, under
bushes8 and even in abandoned nests of other species
(e.g. herons or crows)6. Nests are generally placed
close to water2 although occasionally they may
be some distance
"Extensive" grazing of wetland grasslands (c.0.5 cows
was found to attract a higher abundance
of the species in Hungary19.
Studies in Danish coastal wetlands found that the spatial restriction
of shore-based shooting was more successful at maintaining waterfowl
population sizes than was the temporal
restriction of shooting, and
therefore that wildfowl reserves should incorporate shooting-free
refuges that include adjacent
marshland in order
to ensure high waterfowl
species diversity20. The cyclical removal of adult
fish from an artificial waterbody
) in the UK resulted
in an increase in invertebrate
food availability and an increase
in the growth of submerged aquatic macrophytes, which in turn
to an increased use of the habitat for brood rearing
by the species26.
The removed fish (dead or alive) were sold to generate funds26.
The species will also nest in artificial nest boxes1, 8
List of Habitats:
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.4 Wetlands (inland) - Bogs , Marshes, Swamps, Fens , Peatlands
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 5.7 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 5.14 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes
- 5.17 Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools
- 15 Artificial/Aquatic and Marine
- 15.1 Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
- 15.2 Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
- 15.3 Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
- 15.6 Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas
- 15.7 Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
- 15.9 Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels , Ditches
of mallards consists mainly of vegetation (floating, submerged,
and emergent), but also includes aquatic
such as worms,
mollusks, and arthropods
. They eat seeds of wild rice, pond- weeds
water elm, and oaks, and visit agricultural stubble fields
on leftover grain. They also eat people food fed to them by humans
in parks, at lakes
This is usually bread which is not good
Mallards have several eating strategies. They feed at the water’s surface by straining water through their bill, upend in shallow water to reach deeper food items either below the surface such as submerged plants or in the mud such as snails. Walking on land , they pick up food with the nail of their bill or strip seed heads and foliage with the bill's edge .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Sibley et al., 1988
- Wagler, 1831
- Suborder: Anseres () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758) Wagler, 1831
- Order: Anseriformes () - Wagler, 1831
- Superorder: Galloanserimorphae () - Sibley et al., 1988
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Members of the genus Anas
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 91 species and subspecies in this genus:
A. acuta (American Pintail) · A. acuta acuta (Northern Pintail) · A. acuta drygalskii (Northern Pintail) · A. acuta eatoni (Northern Pintail) · A. americana (American Wigeon / Baldpate) · A. andium (Andean Teal) · A. aucklandica (Campbell Island Flightless Teal) · A. aucklandica aucklandica (New Zealand Brown Teal) · A. aucklandica nesiotis (Campbell Island Flightless Teal) · A. bahamensis (White-Cheeked Pintail) · A. bahamensis bahamensis (White-Cheeked Pintail) · A. bahamensis galapagensis (Galapagos Pintail) · A. bernieri (Madagascar Teal) · A. capensis (African Cape Teal) · A. carolinensis (Green-Winged Teal) · A. castanea (Chestnut-Breasted Teal) · A. chlorotis (Flightless Teal) · A. clypeata (Red-Breasted Shoveler) · A. crecca (Green-Winged Teal) · A. crecca carolinensis (Green-Winged Teal) · A. crecca crecca (Green-Winged Teal) · A. crecca nimia (Aleutian Green-Winged Teal) · A. cyanoptera (South American Teal) · A. cyanoptera cyanoptera (Cinnamon Teal) · A. cyanoptera septentrionalium (Cinnamon Teal) · A. diazi (New Mexican Duck) · A. diazi novimexicana (New Mexican Duck) · A. discors (Blue Winged Teal) · A. discors discors (Blue-Winged Teal) · A. discors orphna (Blue-Winged Teal) · A. drygalskii (Crozet Pintail) · A. eatoni (Kerguelen Pintail) · A. erythrorhyncha (Red-Billed Pintail) · A. falcata (Bronze-Capped Teal) · A. flavirostris (Yellow-Billed Teal) · A. flavirostris flavirostris (Speckled/chilean Teal) · A. formosa (Spectacled Teal) · A. formosa georgi (Spectacled Teal) · A. formosus (Spectacled Teal) · A. fulcigula (Mottled Duck) · A. fulvigula (Summer Black Duck) · A. fulvigula fulvigula (Mottled Duck) · A. fulvigula maculosa (Mottled Duck) · A. georgica (Yellow-Billed Pintail) · A. georgica georgica (Yellow-Billed Pintail) · A. gibberifrons (Sunda Teal) · A. gibberifrons gibberifrons (Sunda Teal) · A. gracilis (Grey Teal) · A. hottentota (Hottentot Teal) · A. laysanensis (Laysan Teal) · A. leucophrys (Ringed Teal) · A. luzonica (Philippine Duck) · A. marecula (Amsterdam Duck) · A. melleri (Meller's Duck) · A. nesiotis (Campbell Island Teal) · A. oustaleti (Anjouan Island Sparrow Hawk) · A. penelope (European Widgeon) · A. platalea (Argentine Shoveller) · A. platyrhynchos (Duck) · A. platyrhynchos conboschas (Mallard) · A. platyrhynchos diazi (Mallard) · A. platyrhynchos platyrhynchos (Mallard) · A. poecilorhyncha (Western Spot-Billed Duck) · A. poecilorhyncha poecilorhyncha (Indian Spot-Billed Duck) · A. puna (Puna Teal) · A. punctata (Pacific Black Duck) · A. querquedula (Garganey Teal) · A. rhynchotis (Australasian Shoveler) · A. rhynchotis rhynchotis (Australasian Shoveler) · A. rubripes (North American Black Duck) · A. sibilatrix (Southern Chiloe Wigeon) · A. smithii (Cape Shoveller) · A. sparsa (African Black Duck) · A. sparsa sparsa (African Black Duck) · A. specularioides (Crested Duck) · A. specularioides specularioides (Crested Duck) · A. specularis (Bronze-Winged Duck) · A. strepera (Common Gadwall) · A. strepera strepera (Gadwall) · A. superciliosa (Black Duck) · A. superciliosa pelewensis (Gray Duck) · A. superciliosa superciliosa (Gray Duck) · A. theodori (Mauritian Duck) · A. undulata (African Yellow-Billed Duck) · A. undulata undulata (African Yellow-Billed Duck) · A. versicolor (Versicolor Teal) · A. versicolor versicolor (Versicolor Teal) · A. waigiuensis (Salvadori's Duck) · A. waigivensis (Salvadori's Duck) · A. wyvilliana (Koloa Piwai) · A. zonorhyncha (Eastern Spot-Billed Duck)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A Directory of Neotropical Wetlands. IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url p. 452, p. 456, p. 473, p. 674.
- A checklist of the vertebrate animals of Kansas / George D. Potts, Joseph T. Collins. [Lawrence, Kan.]: Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 1991. url p. 7.
- A faunal investigation of Long Point and vicinity, Norfolk County, Ontario / [Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology], 1931. url p. 154.
- A faunal investigation of Prince Edward County, Ontario / Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1941. url p. 33.
- A faunal investigation of western Rainy River District, Ontario / [Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology], 1938. url p. 162, p. 182.
- A guide to the birds of Nepal Christopher Helm (Publishers) Ltd. url p. 100.
- A spectacular waterfowl migration through central North America. Urbana: [s.n.], 1957. url p. 4.
- A survey of natural areas in Tyrrell County, North Carolina: for The North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Coastal Natural Area Inventory Project / Raleigh: North Carolina Coastal Energy Impact Program, Office of Coastal Management, North Carolina Dept. of Natural Resources and Community Development, [1982?] url p. 12.
- Acute toxicity of ingested bismuth alloy shot in game-farm mallards. Toxicity of ingested bismuth alloy shot in game-farm mallards: chronic health effects and effects on reproduction / Champaign, IL: Illinois Natural History Survey,  url p. 185, p. 217.
- An ecological characterization of Coastal Maine (north and east of Cape Elizabeth) / Stewart I. Fefer and Patricia S. Schettig: principal investigators. Newton Corner, Mass.: Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Region, 1980. url , p. 47, p. 48.
- An environmental profile of the Black Sea Coast WCMC url p. 14, p. 15, p. 31, p. 32, p. 54.
- Animal Ecology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1961. url p. 458.
- Annotated CITES appendices and reservations 1988 IUCN url p. 35.
- Appendices A-E: terrestrial resources injury assessment report: upper Clark Fork River NPL sites. Helena?, Mont.: Dept. of Justice?, 1995 url .
- Atlas of avian hematology / Alfred M. Lucas, Casimir Jamroz. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1961. url p. 208, p. 252.
- Beached marine birds and mammals of the North American West Coast: a manual for their census and identification / by David G. Ainley. .. [et al.] Pt. Reyes Bird Observatory; with drawings by Helen C. Strong; performed for National Coastal Ecosystems Team, Office of Biological Services, Fish and Wildlife Service [Washington, D.C.]: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.,  url p. 128.
- Biology code of the Chemical-Biological Coordination Center... Washington, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, 1960. url p. 51.
- Biosphere Reserves, Compilation 4, October 1986: programme on man and the biosphere (MAB) IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre url p. 205, p. 234, p. 319, p. 457.
- Birds in Kansas / Max C. Thompson & Charles Ely. 1 Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History: c1989- url p. 82, p. x.
- Birds of the Chukchi Peninsula and Wrangel Island = (Ptitsy Chukotskogo poluostrova i ostrova Vrangelya) / L.A. Portenko; translated from Russian [by P.M. Rao]. New Delhi: Published for the Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., by Amerind Pub. Co., 1981- url p. 341, p. 346.
- Boston park rangers nature book / [s.n.], [1997?] url p. 10.
- Breeding-bird populations in the jack pine and mixed jack pine/deciduous stands in central Ontario / Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, c1995. url p. 18.
- Brigham Young University science bulletin. 10 1968 Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, [1955-1976] url p. 21, p. 3.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: The Museum, 1950-1977. url p. 15, p. 16, p. 17, p. 401, p. 408, p. 409, p. 443.
- Catalog of California seabird colonies / by Arthur L. Sowls. .. [et al.]. Washington, D.C.: Coastal Ecosystems Project, Office of Biological Services, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior: 1980. url p. 3, p. 343.
- Catalogue of birds of the Americas and the adjacent islands in Field Museum of Natural History. Charles E. Hellmayr, Boardman Conover. 13 1948 Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1948. url p. 325, p. 328.
- Check-list and bibliography on the occurrence of insects in birds' nests. Ames, Iowa State College Press url p. 352.
- Check-list of North American birds. [Ithaca, N.Y.]1957. url p. 664, p. 681, p. 71.
- Check-list of North American birds: the species of birds of North America from the Arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and Hawaiian Islands / prepared by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature of the American Orni Lawrence, Kan.: American Ornithologists' Union, 1983. url p. 72, p. 75, p. 76.
- Checklist of CITES Species CITES, WCMC url p. 23, p. 31, p. 39.
- Checklist of CITES Species: a reference to the appendices to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES url p. 23, p. 31.
- Checklist of birds listed in the CITES appendices JNCC url p. 11.
- College zoology [by] Robert W. Hegner [and] Karl A. Stiles. New York, Macmillan url p. 456.
- Compendium of natural features information / Baltimore: The Department, 1975. url p. 165, p. 166, p. 168.
- Conservation of marine birds of northern North America: papers from the international symposium held at the Seattle Hyatt House, Seattle, Washington, 13-15 May 1975 / edited by James C. Bartonek and David N. Nettleship; sponsored by Natural Resources Council of America. .. [et al.]. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, 1979. url p. 131, p. 228, p. 272, p. 273.
- Current bibliography for aquatic sciences and fisheries. London, Taylor & Francis ltd. url p. 620.
- Dioxin hazards to fish, wildlife, and invertebrates a synoptic review / by Ronald Eisler (Patuxent Wildlife Research Center). [Washington, D.C.?]: Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of Interior,  url p. 23.
- Directory of Wetlands of International Importance. IUCN url p. 10, p. 109, p. 115, p. 125, p. 143, p. 146, p. 151, p. 153, p. 154, p. 157, p. 158, p. 160, p. 163, p. 165, p. 167, p. 168, p. 173, p. 193, p. 202, p. 211, p. 213, p. 217, p. 218, p. 234, p. 238, p. 241, p. 242, p. 246, p. 248, p. 266, p. 268, p. 275, p. 282, p. 287, p. 288, p. 291, p. 294, p. 315, p. 323, p. 341, p. 358, p. 360, p. 362, p. 366, p. 367, p. 370, p. 371, p. 373, p. 375, p. 378, p. 380, p. 382, p. 388, p. 389, p. 391, p. 392, p. 401, p. 403, p. 446, p. 454, p. 489, p. 490, p. 491, p. 492, p. 511, p. 519, p. 520, p. 527, p. 556, p. 558, p. 563, p. 566, p. 567, p. 57, p. 580, p. 582, p. 588, p. 590, p. 63, p. 630, p. 632, p. 634, p. 638, p. 643, p. 650, p. 654, p. 659, p. 66, p. 662, p. 668, p. 67, p. 672, p. 675, p. 677, p. 681, p. 683, p. 692, p. 694, p. 707, p. 709, p. 713, p. 716, p. 718, p. 721, p. 729, p. 73, p. 735, p. 74, p. 75, p. 76, p. 95.
- Distribution and abundance of fishes and invertebrates in Gulf of Mexico estuaries / project team, David M. Nelson (editor). .. [et al.]. Rockville, Md.: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, - url p. 35.
- Distribution and status of the harlequin duck, Histrionicus histionicus [sic] on the Gallatin National Forest, Montana / Darrell Markum for the Gallatin National Forest. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url p. 17.
- Ecological investigations of the tundra biome in the Prudhoe Bay region, Alaska / edited by Jerry Brown. [Fairbanks: University of Alaska], 1975. url p. 126.
- Ecologically significant wetlands in the Upper Yellowstone River watershed: including the Boulder, Clarks Fork Yellowstone, Shields, and Stillwater River drainages / Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, 2001. url .
- Essays in geobotany in honor of William Albert Setchell, edited by T.H. Goodspeed. Berkeley, Calif., University of California Press, 1936. url p. 113.
- Ethnographic collections from the Assiniboine and Yanktonai Sioux in the Field Museum of Natural History / James W. VanStone. Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, 1996. url p. 10.
- Experimental studies on Echinostoma revolutum (Froelich) a fluke from birds and mammals. Urbana, Ill., The University of Illinois, 1937 url p. 69.
- Exposure of marine birds to environmental pollutants / by Harry M. Ohlendorf, Robert W. Risebrough, Kees Vermeer. Washington: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, 1978. url .
- FWS/0BS. [Washington]Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. url , , p. 122, p. 138, p. 140, p. 168, p. 172, p. 175, p. 178, p. 179, p. 180, p. 181, p. 182, p. 183, p. 184, p. 186, p. 187, p. 188, p. 189, p. 190, p. 191, p. 192, p. 193, p. 194, p. 195, p. 196, p. 197, p. 199, p. 201, p. 202, p. 220, p. 223, p. 243, p. 254, p. 287, p. 442, p. 61, p. 66, p. 76, p. 8.
- Fauna of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska Peninsula, by Olaus J. Murie. Invertebrates and fishes collected in the Aleutians, 1936-38, by Victor B. Scheffer. Washington, Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1959 url , p. 74.
- Final environmental impact statement: proposed estuarine sanctuary grant award to the state of New York for a Hudson River estuarine sanctuary / Albany, N.Y.: The Department,  url p. 56.
- Fish and Wildlife Habitat Changes Resulting from Construction of a Nine-Foot Channel on Pools 24, 25, and 26 of the Mississippi River and the Lower Illinois River, Ft. BelvoirDefense Technical Information CenterAPR 1979. url p. 437.
- Fish, wildlife and recreational values of Michigan's coastal wetlands / Twin Cities, Minn.: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region III, 1978. url p. 191.
- Fresh-water biology, by Henry Baldwin Ward. .. and George Chandler Whipple. .. with the collaboration of a staff of specialists. New York: Wiley, 1944, c1918. url p. 388.
- General embryological information service. Utrecht, Hubrecht Laboratory. url p. 105, p. 106, p. 106, p. 106, p. 108, p. 113, p. 117, p. 136, p. 175, p. 19, p. 20, p. 24, p. 25, p. 25, p. 26, p. 30, p. 30, p. 32, p. 34, p. 34, p. 34, p. 37, p. 38, p. 40, p. 40, p. 42, p. 43, p. 46, p. 53, p. 60, p. 62, p. 63, p. 63, p. 64, p. 65, p. 65, p. 66, p. 67, p. 67, p. 67, p. 68, p. 68, p. 68, p. 68, p. 69, p. 7, p. 72, p. 73, p. 74, p. 78, p. 80, p. 81, p. 83, p. 86, p. 87, p. 90, p. 91, p. 93, p. 94, p. 97, p. 99.
- Great Basin naturalist memoirs. 1976 [Provo, Utah]Brigham Young University, 1976-1992. url p. 224.
- Heterosis: a record of researches directed toward explaining and utilizing the vigor of hybrids / edited by John W. Gowen. Ames: Iowa State College Press, 1952. url p. 246.
- IUCN Directory of Neotropical Protected Areas IUCN url p. 205.
- IUCN Directory of South Asian Protected Areas IUCN url p. 101, p. 106, p. 145, p. 90.
- Illinois Natural History Survey bulletin. Champaign, Ill.: The Survey, 1987- url , p. 33.
- Illinois River Bluffs area assessment / Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis, [and the] State Geological Survey Division. Springfield, Ill.: Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, 1998- url p. 71.
- James Arthur lecture on the evolution of the human brain. New York, American Museum of Natural History. url p. 14.
- Journal of ethnobiology. 6 1986 Flagstaff, Ariz.: Center for Western Studies, 1981- url p. 11, p. 93.
- Joy of nature: how to observe and appreciate the great outdoors / [editor, Alma E. Guinness]. Pleasantville, N.Y.: Reader's Digest Association, c1977. url p. 326, p. 334.
- Late Pleistocene vertebrates from archaeological sites in the Plain of Kom Ombo, Upper Egypt / [Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum], 1972. url , p. 124, p. 156, p. 29, p. 34.
- Migration of birds. by Frederick C. Linclon; revised by Steven R. Peterson; associate editor Peter A. Anastasi; illustrated by Bob Hines. Washington: Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service: for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1979. url p. 117.
- Miscellaneous publication - University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History. 1960 Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1946-1996. url p. 1, p. 10, p. 11, p. 51.
- Nature Reserves of the Himalaya and the Mountains of Central Asia IUCN url p. 211, p. 212, p. 269, p. 355, p. 434, p. 461, p. 67, p. 70, p. 92, p. 94.
- Occasional papers of the Museum of Natural History, the University of Kansas. 1989 Lawrence, Kan.: The University, 1971-1994. url p. 24, p. 39.
- Opinions and declarations rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. London, Printed by order of the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. url p. 317, p. 318, p. 319, p. 320, p. 322, p. 323, p. 324, p. 328, p. 329, p. 330, p. 333, p. 418, p. 420, p. 449.
- Our living resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of U.S. plants, animals, and ecosystems / [edited by], Edward T. LaRoe. .. [et al.]. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Biological Service, 1995. url p. 299, p. 35.
- P.D. Skaar's Montana bird distribution / revised by Susan Lenard. .. [et al.]. Helena: Montana Natural Heritage Program, 2003. url p. 27.
- Pesticides monitoring journal. [Washington, D.C.: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 1967-1981. url p. 100, p. 115, p. 128, p. 153, p. 176, p. 186, p. 19, p. 2, p. 46, p. 60, p. 67, p. 7, p. 86, p. 97.
- Polychlorinated biphenyl hazards to fish, wildlife, and invertebrates: a synoptic review / by Ronald Eisler (Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). Laurel, MD: The Service, 1986. url p. 16, p. 32.
- Postilla. 1999 New Haven, Conn.: Peabody Museum of Natural History, [1950?]-c2004. url p. 2, p. 3, p. 7.
- Potential wildlife-highway interactions at select mile-markers along Montana Department of Transportation routes an ArcView GIS analysis / Bozeman, Mont.: Fish and Wildlife Management Program, Montana State University, 2001 url .
- Proceedings and transactions of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London: The Society. url p. 44.
- Proceedings of the 1979 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Pollution Response Workshop, 8-10 May 1979, St. Petersburg, Florida / chairman, Columbus H. Brown. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Contaminant Evaluation Program, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior: for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1979. url p. 61, p. 66.
- Proposed estuarine sanctuary grant award to the state of New York for a Hudson River estuarine sanctuary. Albany, N.Y.: New York, Dept. of Environmental Conservation,  url p. 120, p. 128, p. 56.
- Protected Landscapes: experience around the world. Prepared for the International Symposium on Protected Landscapes, Grange-over-Sands, England 5-10 October 1987 IUCN url p. 101, p. 151, p. 276, p. 82.
- Protozoan parasites of domestic animals and of man. Minneapolis, Burgess Pub. Co. url p. 14, p. 397, p. 399.
- Publications in zoology = Publications en zoologie. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1970-1982. url p. 16, p. 37.
- Report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and financial report of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents for the year ending June 30. .. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1933-1965. url p. 103, p. 104, p. 104, p. 105, p. 107, p. 114, p. 117, p. 120, p. 120, p. 127, p. 129, p. 131, p. 135, p. 146, p. 148, p. 149, p. 150, p. 153, p. 156, p. 165, p. 42, p. 69, p. 73, p. 80, p. 81, p. 81, p. 93, p. 97, p. 97, p. 98.
- Research on fish and wildlife habitat / technical editor, William T. Mason, consulting editor, Sam Iker. Washington, D.C.Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1982. url p. 175.
- Rock River area assessment / Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis, Natural History Survey Division, in conjunction with State Geological Survey Division. Springfield, IL: Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, 1996- url p. 132.
- Sex and internal secretions. Contributors: A. Albert [and others] Foreword by George W. Corner. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1961. url p. 1111, p. 1359, p. 1519.
- Smithsonian year. 1965 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965-1976. url p. 176, p. 305.
- Some recent bird records from Canada's eastern Arctic / [Toronto]: Royal Ontario Museum, 1942. url p. 341.
- Special scientific report--wildlife / U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service, 1949- url , , , , p. 1, p. 1, p. 1, p. 1, p. 1, p. 100, p. 101, p. 103, p. 104, p. 105, p. 107, p. 108, p. 109, p. 11, p. 110, p. 112, p. 113, p. 116, p. 120, p. 123, p. 124, p. 125, p. 126, p. 127, p. 128, p. 129, p. 131, p. 132, p. 133, p. 140, p. 142, p. 147, p. 148, p. 149, p. 15, p. 150, p. 151, p. 155, p. 158, p. 161, p. 163, p. 164, p. 165, p. 166, p. 167, p. 170, p. 171, p. 172, p. 174, p. 176, p. 177, p. 178, p. 179, p. 18, p. 180, p. 181, p. 182, p. 185, p. 186, p. 187, p. 191, p. 192, p. 193, p. 195, p. 197, p. 199, p. 2, p. 2, p. 2, p. 2, p. 2, p. 200, p. 202, p. 203, p. 204, p. 205, p. 206, p. 207, p. 210, p. 211, p. 213, p. 218, p. 219, p. 22, p. 221, p. 224, p. 225, p. 227, p. 231, p. 232, p. 233, p. 234, p. 235, p. 236, p. 237, p. 241, p. 242, p. 243, p. 244, p. 245, p. 246, p. 247, p. 248, p. 248, p. 249, p. 250, p. 252, p. 253, p. 255, p. 257, p. 259, p. 260, p. 263, p. 265, p. 269, p. 271, p. 272, p. 273, p. 275, p. 277, p. 278, p. 279, p. 281, p. 283, p. 284, p. 285, p. 286, p. 288, p. 289, p. 290, p. 291, p. 293, p. 294, p. 296, p. 298, p. 300, p. 303, p. 304, p. 305, p. 309, p. 31, p. 310, p. 311, p. 313, p. 316, p. 322, p. 323, p. 324, p. 325, p. 326, p. 329, p. 333, p. 335, p. 338, p. 339, p. 340, p. 342, p. 343, p. 344, p. 347, p. 349, p. 351, p. 352, p. 354, p. 356, p. 357, p. 358, p. 364, p. 367, p. 369, p. 371, p. 373, p. 374, p. 375, p. 376, p. 377, p. 379, p. 381, p. 384, p. 386, p. 389, p. 390, p. 393, p. 395, p. 397, p. 399, p. 4, p. 402, p. 404, p. 405, p. 406, p. 407, p. 409, p. 41, p. 410, p. 413, p. 414, p. 416, p. 418, p. 42, p. 421, p. 422, p. 425, p. 427, p. 429, p. 43, p. 430, p. 431, p. 434, p. 436, p. 438, p. 44, p. 441, p. 444, p. 445, p. 448, p. 45, p. 451, p. 452, p. 454, p. 456, p. 458, p. 459, p. 46, p. 462, p. 466, p. 468, p. 47, p. 470, p. 472, p. 473, p. 474, p. 475, p. 476, p. 479, p. 48, p. 480, p. 483, p. 485, p. 487, p. 489, p. 490, p. 491, p. 493, p. 494, p. 495, p. 498, p. 5, p. 50, p. 503, p. 505, p. 507, p. 509, p. 51, p. 511, p. 512, p. 513, p. 516, p. 518, p. 519, p. 52, p. 520, p. 524, p. 526, p. 527, p. 529, p. 53, p. 530, p. 535, p. 536, p. 537, p. 538, p. 539, p. 540, p. 541, p. 544, p. 546, p. 548, p. 550, p. 552, p. 558, p. 559, p. 56, p. 560, p. 561, p. 563, p. 565, p. 566, p. 569, p. 57, p. 570, p. 574, p. 575, p. 58, p. 580, p. 581, p. 582, p. 583, p. 584, p. 585, p. 586, p. 587, p. 59, p. 592, p. 594, p. 597, p. 599, p. 60, p. 601, p. 602, p. 603, p. 605, p. 608, p. 61, p. 611, p. 612, p. 613, p. 614, p. 615, p. 618, p. 619, p. 620, p. 622, p. 623, p. 625, p. 628, p. 63, p. 636, p. 638, p. 641, p. 643, p. 644, p. 648, p. 65, p. 651, p. 653, p. 654, p. 659, p. 659, p. 66, p. 662, p. 667, p. 672, p. 673, p. 674, p. 675, p. 676, p. 677, p. 678, p. 680, p. 681, p. 684, p. 689, p. 69, p. 690, p. 692, p. 7, p. 71, p. 73, p. 74, p. 75, p. 76, p. 77, p. 78, p. 79, p. 8, p. 8, p. 8, p. 80, p. 81, p. 82, p. 83, p. 84, p. 86, p. 88, p. 89, p. 91, p. 93, p. 96, p. 97, p. 98.
- Special scientific report. Seattle, National Marine Fisheries Service; for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1949-1971. url p. 108.
- Station bulletin. Durham, N.H.: Agricultural Experiment Station, University of New Hampshire, 1948- url p. 41, p. 73.
- Syllogeus. Ottawa, National Museum of Natural Sciences, 1972-1995. url p. 16, p. 9, p. 99.
- Terrestrial resources injury assessment report: upper Clark Fork River Basin / [S.l.: RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc.?, 1995 url .
- The Bulletin of zoological nomenclature. London, International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. url p. 109, p. 29, p. 338.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 6 1945 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 111, p. 114, p. 276, p. 313, p. 332, p. 339, p. 339, p. 343, p. 37, p. 392, p. 420, p. 478, p. 480, p. 499, p. 516, p. 518, p. 520, p. 577, p. 58, p. 594, p. 602, foote, page 614, p. 67, p. 68, p. 730.
- The Marine Mammal Commission compendium of selected treaties, international agreements, and other relevant documents on marine resources, wildlife, and the environment / compiled by Richard L. Wallace. Washington, D.C.: The Commission; 1994 url p. 3126, p. 3481.
- The birds of the Lake St. Martin region, Manitoba / [Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology], 1937. url p. 10.
- The birds of the vicinity of Lake Nipissing, Ontario / [Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum], 1939. url p. 4.
- The book of woodcraft. .. New York, The Sun dial press, inc. url p. 254.
- The ducks, geese, and swans of North America; a vade mecum for the naturalist and the sportsman, by Francis H. Kortright. Illus. by T. M. Shortt. Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Co.;[1960, c1953] url , p. 149.
- The ecology of Tijuana Estuary, California: a national estuarine research reserve / by Joy B. Zedler, Christopher S. Nordby and Barbara E. Kus. [Washington, D.C.: NOAA Office of Coastal Resource Management, Sanctuaries and Reserves Division], 1992. url p. 68.
- The effect of altered streamflow on migratory birds of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana / by Tom Hinz. Helena: Water Resources Division, Montana Dept. of Natural Resources & Conservation, 1977. url p. 101, p. 47, p. 5.
- The exploitation of natural animal populations; a symposium of the British Ecological Society, Durham, 28th-31st March 1960. Edited by E. D. Le Cren and M. W. Holdgate. New York, Wiley url p. 392, p. 396, p. 90, p. 94.
- The natural history of the USSR / Algirdas Knystautas; foreword by Vladimir Flint; [translation, John S. Scott]. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987. url p. 200, p. 202, p. 207, p. 218.
- The new conquest of central Asia: a narrative of the explorations of the Central Asiatic expeditions in Mongolia and China, 1921-1930 / by Roy Chapman Andrews; with chapters by Walter Granger, Clifford H. Pope, Nels C. Nelson, and summary statements by G.M. Allen, R.C. Andrews, C.P. Berkey. .. [et al.]; with 128 plates and 12 illust New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1932. url p. 28.
- The summer birds of Yakutat Bay, Alaska / [Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology], 1939. url p. 7.
- Threatened wildlife of the United States. Washington, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife [for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.]1973. url p. 116.
- Treaties and other international agreements on fisheries, oceanographic resources, and wildlife to which the United States is party / prepared at the request of Hon. Warren G. Magnuson for the use of the Committee on Commerce, United States Senate, by the Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O., 1974. url p. 821.
- Type-specimens of birds in the British Museum (Natural History) / by R.L.M. Warren & C.J.O. Harrison. London: BM(NH), 1966-1973. url p. 4.
- University of Kansas publications, Museum of Natural History. 11 1958 Lawrence, University of Kansas. url p. 174, p. 454, p. 604, p. 94, p. 95, p. 97.
- Variation in the jaw musculature of the avian family Vireonidae / Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1981. url p. 42, p. 7.
- Washington State Coastal Zone Management Program amendment no. 3: approval of the Grays Harbor estuary management plan: program draft environmental impact statement. [Olympia, Wash.?]: Grays Harbor Regional Planning Commission; 1983. url p. 3.
- Waterfowl migration corridors east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States [by] Frank C. Bellrose. Urbana, State of Illinois, Natural History Survey Division, 1968. url p. 24.
- Wildlife impact assessment and summary of previous mitigation related to hydroelectric projects in Montana: volume one, Libby Dam project -- operator, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers / prepared by Chris A. Yde and Arnold Olsen, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Portland, Ore. (P.O. Box 3621, Portland 97208): Bonneville Power Administration, Division of Fish and Wildlife,  url p. 11.
- World Checklist of Threatened Birds Joint Nature Conservation Committee url p. 291, p. 308.
- BirdLife International 2004. In IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCNRedList.org. Downloaded July 18, 2008.
- BirdLife International 2009. Anas platyrhynchos. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 30January2012.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 and ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 19, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed September 25, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 2 providers.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Peterson, Alan P. Zoological Nomenclature Resource. Accessed June 19, 2009.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 and ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 28, 2007:
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, North West Territories and Nunavut Bird Checklist, Canada
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Ontario Nest Records
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Birds
- Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility, Royal British Columbia Museum
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 11696
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-714703
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 3085810
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 175063
- IUCN ID: 190932
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNJB10060
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 270
- Mean = 1,204.240 meters (3,950.919 feet), Standard Deviation = 1,341.080 based on 796 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- BirdLife International 2009. Anas platyrhynchos. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 January 2012. [back]