Family : Herrings , shads , sardines , menhadens ; Movement of schooling adults apparently restricted to coastal areas proximal to natal estuaries . They migrate up rivers and even small streams to spawn in lakes and quiet stretches of rivers, then return to sea shortly after spawning; landlocked populations also ascend affluent rivers and streams. Larvae remain in vicinity of spawning grounds , forming schools at sizes less than 10 mm TL , within one to two weeks after hatching , then descend in summer and autumn or even as late as November or December. Feed on shrimps and small fishes ; the young on diatoms , copepods and ostracods while in rivers. Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; eaten fried. Also used for crab and lobster bait and sometimes for pet food (Ref. 9988). Parasites found are Acanthocephala, cestodes, trematodes and copepods. Overfishing , pollution and impassable dams cause the decline of stocks.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Catalan:
Common Names in Czech:
Placka Atlantick, Placka atlantická, Placka Velkook, Placka velkooká
Common Names in Danish:
Flodsild, Majsild, Stamsild
Common Names in Davawenyo:
Common Names in Dutch:
Amerikaanse Rivierharing, Bastaardelft, Meivis, Rivierharing
Common Names in English:
alewife, Anadromous alewives, bigeye herring, branch herring, Clipped roefish, Corned alewives, Freshwater herring, Gaspereau, Glut Herring, Golden Shad, gray herring, grayback, Grey Herring, Greyback, Kiack, kyack, Kyak, Mulhaden, River Goby, River herring, Sawbelly, Shad, Spreau, White herring
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Alose gaspareau, Gapareau, gaspareau, Gasparot, Gaspereau, Gasperot
Common Names in German:
Maifisch, Nordamerikanischer Flu, Nordamerikanischer Flußhering
Common Names in Greek:
Frissa, Sardellom, Sardellomána
Common Names in Greek, Modern:
Common Names in Greek, Modern (1453):
Common Names in Icelandic:
Common Names in Italian:
Alaccia, Alosa, Falsa aringa atlantica, Falsa-aringa atlantica
Common Names in Kotoko:
Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:
淡水大眼鯡, 淡水大眼鲱, 灰西鯡, 灰西鲱
Common Names in Norwegian:
Common Names in Polish:
Aloza wielkooka a. aloza teczowa
Common Names in Portuguese:
Alosa cinzenta, Alosa-cinzenta
Common Names in Rumanian:
Hering de primavara
Common Names in Russian:
Bol´sheglazyi Pomolob, Bol'sheglazyi pomolob, сероспинка
Common Names in Serbian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Common Names in Swedish:
Species Alosa pseudoharengus
and Snout: Slightly superior, upturned, very large obvious
extending almost to the middle
of the eye. There are 41-44
closely spaced gill rakers. The teeth are very small and negligible.
. Body Pattern
: The body and fins
are solid silver. Some
individuals have a diffuse
dark spot just behind
the opercle. Numerous
. Body Shape
: Laterally compressed
, with obvious scales
that are vertically elongated. Typical adult
size is 125-200 mm TL
with a maximum in the Great Lakes
region of about 250 mm.
One single dorsal fin with 13-14 rays and without an elongated last ray located in the middle of the back. The anal fin has 17-18 rays, and the tail is deeply forked . The pelvic fins are abdominal with axillary processes and located just below the dorsal fin. The origin of pelvic fins is even with or slightly behind the origin of the dorsal fin.
Distinguishing Characteristics: Members of the herring family in Wisconsin have a keel-like belly with projecting scales that it a saw-tooth texture . The alewife has a large, upturned maxillary with teeth weak or absent on jaws and none on the tongue. Dorsal fin typically 13-14 rays, no elongated rays, and origin forward of origin of pelvic rays; typiclally 17-18 anal fin rays. 41-44 gill rakers on first gill arch; no gular membrane ; no lateral line, and 42-50 scales in lateral series. See also similar species information.
Breeding Adults: Same.
Juveniles are more elongate and not as deep-bodied as adults.
Males are commonly 30 cm (Standard Length) in length when caught/marketed, but may be as large as 40 cm (Standard Length).
May be found at depths of 5 to 145 meters.
Biome: Marine .
Sound types : swimming noise.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Huxley, 1880
- Class: Osteichthyes () - Huxley, 1880
- Superclass: Osteichthyes () - Huxley, 1880
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Alosa pseudoharengus • Clupea megalops Rafinesque • Clupea parvula Mitchill • Clupea pseudoharengus • Clupea pseudoharengus Wilson • Clupea pseudoharengus Wilson, 1811 • Clupea vernalis Mitchill • Clupea virescens Dekay • Meletta venosa Valenciennes • Pomolobus pseudoharengus (Wilson
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 24-Jul-1994
Fish Name Keel Dorsal Fin Rays Anal Fin Rays Mouth/Teeth Gill Rakers Gular Membrane Lateral Line Similarity Index Comments Alewife Scaled, saw-like keel extending from vent forward to isthmus (gill area) Typically 13-14, no elongated rays and origin forward of origin of pelvic rays Typically 17-18 Superior mouth and teeth on jaws weak or absent 41-44 on 1st gill arch Absent Absent, 42-50 scales in lateral series N/A Also moderately similar to deep-bodied shiners of the minnow family (Cyprinella, Luxilus, Notemigonus, Scardinius) Gizzard Shad Saw-like keel Typically 10-12 rays with last ray more than three times longer than adjacent ray and dorsal origin behind pelvic origin Typically 27-34 No teeth on jaws or tongue About 190 on 1st gill arch Absent Absent, 52-70 scales in lateral series Moderately similar Goldeye Fleshy keel, lacking scales and not saw-like Less than 13 rays 29-34 No teeth on jaws or tongue 15-17 Present Present, 57-62 scales in lateral series Moderately similar Mooneye Fleshy keel, lacking scales and not saw-like Less than 13 rays 26-29 No teeth on jaws or tongue 15-17 Present Present, 52-57 scales in lateral series Moderately similar Skipjack Herring Scaled, saw-like keel extending from vent forward to isthmus (gill area) Typically 17, no elongated rays and origin forward of origin of pelvic fins Typically 18 Superior mouth and teeth on jaws and tongue 20-30 on 1st gill arch Absent Absent, 53-60 scales in lateral series Moderately similar
Members of the genus Alosa
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 40 species and subspecies in this genus:
A. aestivalis (Blueback Glut Herring) · A. agone (Agone) · A. alabamae (Alabama Shad?names of Fishes 67) · A. alburnus (Caspian Marine Shad) · A. algeriensis (North African Shad) · A. alosa (Blueback Glut Herring) · A. alosa alosa (Blueback Glut Herring) · A. braschnikowi (Brazhnikov's Shad) · A. braschnikowi braschnikowi (Caspian Marine Shad) · A. braschnikowi sarensis (Caspian Marine Shad) · A. brashnikovi (Caspian Marine Shad) · A. brashnikovi brashnikovi (Caspian Marine Shad) · A. caspia (Astrabad Shad) · A. caspia caspia (Caspian Shad) · A. caspia knipowitschi (Enzeli Shad) · A. caspia persica (Astrabad Shad) · A. chrysochloris (Skipjack Herring) · A. elongata (Elongate Ilisha) · A. fallax (Killarney Shad) · A. fallax fallax (Twaite Shad) · A. fallax nilotica (Killarney Shad) · A. immaculata (Kerch Black Sea Shad) · A. kessleri (Black-Back Shad) · A. killarnensis (Goureen) · A. macedonica (Macedonian Shad) · A. maeotica (Black Sea Shad) · A. mediocris (Shad Fall Herring) · A. nilotica (Mediterranean Shad) · A. pectinata (Brazilian Menhaden) · A. pontica (Kerch Black Sea Shad) · A. pseudoharengus (Anadromous Alewives) · A. reevesii (Seasonal Shad) · A. sapidissima (Connecticut River Shad) · A. saposchnikowii (Bigeye Shad) · A. saposhnikovi (Saposhnikovi Shad) · A. sphaerocephala (Agrakhana Shad) · A. sp. nov. 'Skadar' (Skadar Shad) · A. tanaica (Black Sea Shad) · A. teres (California Round Herring) · A. volgensis (Caspian Anadromous Shad)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 01, 2008:
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Fish Collection
- Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates: Fish Collection
- FishBase: FishBase DiGIR Provider - Philippine Server
- GBIF-Sweden: Fishes (NRM)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Atlantic Reference Centre (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Bay of Fundy Species List (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Canadian Museum of Nature - Fish Collection (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: DFO Maritimes Research Vessel Trawl Surveys Fish Observations (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: ECNASAP - East Coast North America Strategic Assessment (OBIS Canada)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Gulf of Maine Bottom Trawl Survey Data (NEFSC,NMFS,NOAA)(USOBIS)
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History - Marine Birds, Mammals, and Fishes (OBIS Canada)
- Museum national d'histoire naturelle: Ichtyologie
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University: MCZ Fish Collection
- Royal Ontario Museum: Fish specimens
- University of Kansas Biodiversity Research Center: Fish Collection
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 119578
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-23334
- Fishbase Species ID: 1583
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2490700
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 161706
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: AFCFA01050
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 15651
- Jones, P.W., F.D. Martin and J.D. Hardy, Jr. (1978). Development of fishes of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. An atlas of eggs, larval and juvenile stages. Vol. 1. Acipenseridae through Ictaluridae. U.S. Fish Wildl. Ser. Biol. Serv. Program FWS/OBS-78/12. 33 ... [back]
- Frimodt, C. (1995). Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial coldwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, England. 215 p. [back]
- Bigelow, H.B., M.G. Bradbury, J.R. Dymond, J.R. Greeley, S.F. Hildebrand, G.W. Mead, R.R. Miller, L.R. Rivas, W.L. Schroeder, R.D. Suttkus and V.D. Vladykov (1963). Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Part three. New Haven, Sears Found. Mar. Res., Y ... [back]