Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Czech:
Placka Mississippsk, Placka mississippská
Common Names in Danish:
Bl, Blå stamsild
Common Names in English:
blue herring, golden shad, green herring, River herring, Skipjack, skipjack herring, skipjack shad
Common Names in Finnish:
Common Names in French:
Alose Dor, Alose dorée
Common Names in Mandarin Chinese:
墨西哥湾西鲱, 墨西哥灣西鯡, 金色大眼鯡, 金色大眼鲱
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Sábalo del Golfo
Species Alosa chrysochloris
and Snout: Slightly superior, upturned, very large obvious
extending almost to the middle
of the eye. There are 20-30
gill rakers. The skipjack herring
has small teeth that can be seen
and felt. No barbels
. Body Pattern
: The body and fins
are solid silvery
or golden. There may be a row
spots. Cycloid scales
: Laterally compressed
. Typical adult
size is 250-450 mm
(11-16 inches), with a maximum of about 550 mm.
Fins: One single dorsal fin without an elongated last ray located in the middle of the back. The anal fin has 17-18 rays, and the tail is deeply forked . The pelvic fins are abdominal and located just below the dorsal fin. The origin of pelvic fins is even with or slightly behind the origin of the dorsal fin. Pelvic abdominal fins with axillary processes. No adipose fin .
Distinguishing characteristics: Members of the herring family in Wisconsin have a keel-like belly with projecting scales that have a saw-tooth texture . The keel extends from vent forward to isthmus. The skipjack herring has visible teeth in its jaw. Dorsal fin typically with 17 rays, none are longer , and origin forward of origin of pelvic fins. 18 anal fin rays; superior mouth ; 20-30 gill rakers on first gill arch; no gular membrane ; no lateral line and 53-60 scales in lateral series. See also similar species information.
Breeding adults: Same.
Juveniles : Juveniles are not as deep-bodied as adults.
Males are commonly 38 cm (Standard Length) in length when caught/marketed, but may be as large as 50 cm (Standard Length).
Biome: Marine .
Feeds on small fishes , the juveniles on insects.
Spawning times and places not certain.
Anadromous . Enters brackish- and freshwaters , but perhaps not always or not consistently anadromous, although strongly migratory within rivers , mostly in fast-flowing water where they are renowned for leaping.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Huxley, 1880
- Huxley, 1880
- Order: Clupeiformes ()
- Cohort: Clupeocephala ()
- Infraclass: Actinopteri ()
- Subclass: Actinopterygii ()
- Class: Osteichthyes () - Huxley, 1880
- Superclass: Osteichthyes () - Huxley, 1880
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Alosa chrysochloris • Cylindrosteus rafinesquii Duméril • Cylindrosteus scabiceps Fowler • Cylindrosteus scabriceps Fowler • Lepisosteus albus Rafinesque • Pomolobus chrysochloris • Pomolobus chrysochloris Rafinesque • Pomolobus chrysochloris Rafinesque, 1820
Status: Accepted Name
First described: Rafinesque C.S . Annals of nature, or annual synopsis of new genera and species of animals, plants etc. discovered in North America. First annual number for 1820 Lexington. pp. 20, 1820.
Last scrutiny: Data last modified by FishBase 24-Jul-1994
Fish Name Keel Dorsal Fin Rays Anal Fin Rays Mouth/Teeth Gill Rakers Gular Membrane Lateral Line Similarity Index Comments Alewife Scaled, saw-like keel extending from vent forward to isthmus (gill area) Typically 13-14, no elongated rays and origin forward of origin of pelvic rays Typically 17-18 Superior mouth and teeth on jaws weak or absent 41-44 on 1st gill arch Absent Absent, 42-50 scales in lateral series Moderately similar Gizzard Shad Saw-like keel Typically 10-12 rays with last ray more than three times longer than adjacent ray and dorsal origin behind pelvic origin Typically 27-34 No teeth on jaws or tongue About 190 on 1st gill arch Absent Absent, 52-70 scales in lateral series Moderately similar Goldeye Fleshy keel, lacking scales and not saw-like Less than 13 rays 29-34 No teeth on jaws or tongue 15-17 Present Present, 57-62 scales in lateral series Moderately similar Mooneye Fleshy keel, lacking scales and not saw-like Less than 13 rays 26-29 No teeth on jaws or tongue 15-17 Present Present, 52-57 scales in lateral series Moderately similar Skipjack Herring Scaled, saw-like keel extending from vent forward to isthmus (gill area) Typically 17, no elongated rays and origin forward of origin of pelvic fins Typically 18 Superior mouth and teeth on jaws and tongue 20-30 on 1st gill arch Absent Absent, 53-60 scales in lateral series N/A Also moderately similar to deep-bodied shiners of the minnow family (Cyprinella, Luxilus, Notemigonus, Scardinius)
Members of the genus Alosa
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 40 species and subspecies in this genus:
A. aestivalis (Blueback Glut Herring) · A. agone (Agone) · A. alabamae (Alabama Shad?names of Fishes 67) · A. alburnus (Caspian Marine Shad) · A. algeriensis (North African Shad) · A. alosa (Blueback Glut Herring) · A. alosa alosa (Blueback Glut Herring) · A. braschnikowi (Brazhnikov's Shad) · A. braschnikowi braschnikowi (Caspian Marine Shad) · A. braschnikowi sarensis (Caspian Marine Shad) · A. brashnikovi (Caspian Marine Shad) · A. brashnikovi brashnikovi (Caspian Marine Shad) · A. caspia (Astrabad Shad) · A. caspia caspia (Caspian Shad) · A. caspia knipowitschi (Enzeli Shad) · A. caspia persica (Astrabad Shad) · A. chrysochloris (Skipjack Herring) · A. elongata (Elongate Ilisha) · A. fallax (Killarney Shad) · A. fallax fallax (Twaite Shad) · A. fallax nilotica (Killarney Shad) · A. immaculata (Kerch Black Sea Shad) · A. kessleri (Black-Back Shad) · A. killarnensis (Goureen) · A. macedonica (Macedonian Shad) · A. maeotica (Black Sea Shad) · A. mediocris (Shad Fall Herring) · A. nilotica (Mediterranean Shad) · A. pectinata (Brazilian Menhaden) · A. pontica (Kerch Black Sea Shad) · A. pseudoharengus (Anadromous Alewives) · A. reevesii (Seasonal Shad) · A. sapidissima (Connecticut River Shad) · A. saposchnikowii (Bigeye Shad) · A. saposhnikovi (Saposhnikovi Shad) · A. sphaerocephala (Agrakhana Shad) · A. sp. nov. 'Skadar' (Skadar Shad) · A. tanaica (Black Sea Shad) · A. teres (California Round Herring) · A. volgensis (Caspian Anadromous Shad)
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- 1990-1991 annual progress report, long-term Illinois River fish population monitoring program / Richard E. Sparks and K. Douglas Blodgett. Havana, Ill.: Illinois Natural History Survey, River Research Laboratory of the Forbes Biological Station, 1991. url p. 44.
- A checklist of the vertebrate animals of Kansas / George D. Potts, Joseph T. Collins. [Lawrence, Kan.]: Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 1991. url p. 25.
- A distributional atlas of Upper Mississippi River fishes / [by] Philip W. Smith, Alvin C. Lopinot [and] William L. Pflieger. Urbana: [s. n.]; 1971. url p. 11, p. 12, p. 5.
- A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Report presented at the eighty-ninth annual meeting, Clearwater, Fla., Sept. 16-18, 1959. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1960. url p. 10.
- A synopsis of the fishes of North America / by David Humphreys Storer. Cambridge: Metcalf, 1846. url p. 208.
- Boston journal of natural history. Boston, Boston Society of Natural History. url p. 307.
- Bulletin / Illinois Natural History Survey. Urbana, State of Illinois, Dept. of Registration and Education, Natural History Survey Division, 1918-1985. url , , p. 289.
- California fish and game. [San Francisco, etc.]: State of California, Resources Agency, Dept. of Fish and Game. url p. 28.
- Dean bibliography of fishes. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1971-1973. url p. 263, p. 290, p. 320, p. 94.
- Environmental inventory and assessment of Navigation Pools 24, 25, and 26, Upper Mississippi and Lower Illinois Rivers: an electrofishing survey of the Illinois River / Richard E. Sparks. [Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Water Resources Center], 1977. url , p. 21, p. 86.
- Final environmental impact statement: proposed estuarine sanctuary grant award for Apalachicola Bay and lower Apalachicola River, Franklin County, Florida to State of Florida / Washington, D.C.: Office of Coastal Zone Management, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 1979. url .
- Fish and Wildlife Habitat Changes Resulting from Construction of a Nine-Foot Channel on Pools 24, 25, and 26 of the Mississippi River and the Lower Illinois River, Ft. BelvoirDefense Technical Information CenterAPR 1979. url p. 125, p. 443.
- Fishery bulletin / U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service: url p. 451.
- Fishes in Kansas / Frank B. Cross, Joseph T. Collins; foreword by John E. Hayes, Jr. Lawrence, Kan.: University of Kansas Natural History Museum: c1995. url p. 258, p. 307, p. 43, p. xiv.
- Illinois River Bluffs area assessment / Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis, [and the] State Geological Survey Division. Springfield, Ill.: Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, 1998- url p. 114, p. 117.
- Miscellaneous publication - University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History. 1967 Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1946-1996. url p. 3, p. 347, p. 51.
- Non-native fishes inhabiting the streams and lakes of Illinois / Champaign, Ill.: Illinois Natural History Survey,  url p. 9.
- Occasional papers / Tulane University, Museum of Natural History. 1994 [Belle Chasse, La.]: The Museum, 1977- url p. 23.
- Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia url p. 36, p. 36.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 28, p. 29, p. 729.
- Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio. Columbus, Nevins & Myers, state printers, 1873-93. url .
- The Canadian field-naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url , , p. 352, p. 353, p. 375, p. 564, p. 572, p. 574, p. 578, p. 582, p. 588.
- The ecology of the Apalachicola Bay system: an estuarine profile / by Robert J. Livingston (Department of Biological Science, Florida State University); prepared for National Coastal Ecosystems Team, Division of Biological Services, Research and Development, Fish an Washington, D.C.: The Service,  url p. 60.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 1, p. 102, p. 110, p. 113, p. 121, p. 145, p. 147, p. 154, p. 161, p. 171, p. 173, p. 189, p. 190, p. 193, p. 21, p. 4, p. 49, p. 53, p. 6, p. 7, p. 75, p. 78, p. 8, p. 9.
- Tulane studies in zoology and botany. 24 1983 New Orleans: Tulane University, [1968- url , p. 132, p. 134, knight & hastings, page 141, p. 144, p. 149, p. 90.
- Tulane studies in zoology. 13 1967 New Orleans: Tulane University, 1953-1968. url p. 140.
- University of Kansas publications, Museum of Natural History. 17 1966 Lawrence, University of Kansas. url p. 162, p. 320, p. 321, maps 19-20, page 472, p. 631.
- American Fisheries Society. Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United states, Canada, and Mexico Sixth Edition. Special Publication 29.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 31, 2012.
- FishBase. Release date: January 5, 2010
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 01, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 4 providers.
- Lyons, John. WiscFish.org University of Wisconsin, Center for Limnology, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, University of Wisconsin Sea Grant. Provided photos, physical description, and table comparing similar species.
- NatureServe. 2003. Downloadable animal data sets. NatureServe Central Databases. Accessed February 6, 2005.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- Smith-Vaniz, William F. (from FishBase).
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal March 01, 2008:
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Fish Collection
- FishBase: FishBase DiGIR Provider - Philippine Server
- Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University: Canadian Museum of Nature - Fish Collection (OBIS Canada)
- Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University: MCZ Fish Collection
- University of Kansas Biodiversity Research Center: Fish Collection
- University of Minnesota Bell Museum of Natural History: Fish specimens
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 119571
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Fis-23330
- Fishbase Species ID: 1578
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13816372
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 161707
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: AFCFA01030
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 15806