Common Names in English:
The species breeds in young coniferous forests with high canopy associations. Habitats that they are documented to use include ponderosa pine, black oak, riparian deciduous, mixed conifer, and Jeffrey pine. The species uses dense stands in close proximity to open areas. It roosts in intermediate to high-canopy forest and nests in dense, even-aged, single-layered forest canopy. Usually it is found in large remote woods throughout most of the continent (Terres 1980). Although they seem to prefer riparian habitats they are not restricted to them and are found in mid-elevation habitat such as pine forests, woodlands and mixed conifer forests. For nesting they occur in dense tree stands which are cool, moist, well shaded and usually near water. For hunting habitat, they often use openings at the edges of woodlands and also brushy pastures (USFS pers. comm. 1999). Sharp-shinned hawks may occur in a large variety of woodland habitats during winter and migration periods and are most common in southern California in the coastal lowlands and desert areas (e.g. , Garrett and Dunn 1981). The species winters in woodlands and other habitats except alpine , open prairie and bare desert (Zeiner, et al. 1990).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,765 meters (0 to 9,072 feet).
The species feeds almost entirely on small birds. It eats mostly small birds, usually no larger than jays; it also rarely takes small mammals, insects, reptiles , and amphibians (Brown and Amadon 1968). Perches , and darts out in sudden flight to surprise prey ; also cruises rapidly in search flights. Often the sharp-shinned hawk hunts as a harrier, in low, gliding flights. It often forages in openings at edges of woodlands, hedgerows, brushy pastures, and shorelines , especially where migrating birds are found (Zeiner, et al. 1990). North-facing slopes with prey plucking perches are a critical habitat requirement. These hawks chose avian prey opportunistically (Joy et al. 1994).
The average distance
is 2.5 miles
(Zeiner, et al.
The species usually nests in dense, pole
and small-tree stands of
conifers which are cool, moist, well shaded, with little groundcover
and near water (Call
1978). The sharp-shinned hawk tends to nest
stands with a greater percent cover
of conifer trees
the Cooper’s hawk and also tends to place the nest within the canopy
of the tree (Trexel, et al. 1999; Wiggers and Kritz 1991). The nesting
for this hawk in Missouri was recorded from May to August
with a mean clutch
size of 4.5 (n=8) (Wiggers and Kritz 1994). It
from April through August in California, with the peak nesting
period from late May to July (Zeiner et al. 1990). The clutch averages
, with a range
of 3-8. Incubation
is 34-35 days, and done
by both parents. The male brings food to the female and the semi-altricial
young; fledging occurs at about 60 days. Among 11 pairs in Oregon,
Reynolds (1975) reported 2.7 young/ pair, and a hatching
of 70%. Egg loss in the species was greater than nestling loss. The
nests may be reused in later years (Reynolds, et al. 1982). Nest
is a platform or cup
in dense foliage
, or in main crotch
of tree, usually 2-24 m
) above ground
. This species has
the most inconspicuous nest of the accipiters (Call 1978).
Dispersal : The young first fly about 23 days after hatching (Brown and Amadon 1968). No other information is available.
Daily Activity: The sharp-shinned hawk exhibits
activity (Zeiner et al.
Socio-Spatial Behavior: In Wyoming, Craighead and Craighead (1956) measured two breeding home ranges of 67 ha and 132 ha (166 and 326 ac). Reynolds (1979) reported crude home range of 2,750 ha (6600 ac). The territory appears to be the same as the home range. Distances averaged 4.1 km (2.5 mi ) between nests . The sharp-shinned hawk demonstrates very active nest defense. Breeding home ranges may be as large as approximately 800 hectares (Johnsgard 1990).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- C. Linnaeus, 1758
- (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Grobben, 1908
- (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Bateson, 1885
- Cuvier, 1812
- Jawed Vertebrates
- Goodrich, 1930
- Linnaeus, 1758
- Gauthier, 1986
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Pycraft, 1900
- Seebohm, 1890
- Sharpe, 1874
- (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Sharpe, 1874
- Parvorder: Accipitrida ()
- Infraorder: Falconides () - Sharpe, 1874
- Suborder: Accipitres () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Order: Accipitriformes () - Sharpe, 1874
- Superorder: Falconimorphae () - Seebohm, 1890
- Cohort: Neognathae () - Pycraft, 1900
- Infraclass: Aves () - (C. Linnaeus, 1758)
- Subclass: Avialae () - Gauthier, 1986
- Class: Aves () - Linnaeus, 1758
- Superclass: Tetrapoda () - Goodrich, 1930
- Infraphylum: Gnathostomata () - auct. - Jawed Vertebrates
- Subphylum: Vertebrata () - Cuvier, 1812 - Vertebrates
- Phylum: Chordata () - Bateson, 1885 - Chordates
- Infrakingdom: Chordonia () - (Haeckel, 1874) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Branch: Deuterostomia () - Grobben, 1908
- Subkingdom: Bilateria () - (Hatschek, 1888) Cavalier-Smith, 1983
- Kingdom: Animalia () - C. Linnaeus, 1758 - animals
Name Status: Accepted Name . Latest taxonomic scrutiny: June 24, 1996.
Members of the genus Accipiter
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 112 species and subspecies in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
(Pied Goshawk) · (Pied Goshawk) · (Pied Goshawk) · (Shikra) · (Little Banded Goshawk) · (Shikra) · (Shikra) · (Shikra) · (Bicolored Hawk) · (Bicolored Hawk (Bicolored)) · (Bicolored Hawk (Chilean)) · (Bicolored Hawk) · (Bicolored Hawk (Spotted)) · (New Britain Sparrowhawk) · (Levant Sparrowhawk) · A. buergersi (Chestnut-Shouldered Goshawk) · (Nicobar Sparrowhawk) · (Nicobar Sparrowhawk) · (Chestnut-Flanked Sparrowhawk) · A. chilensis (Chilean Hawk) · A. chionogaster (White-Breasted Hawk) · A. cirrhocephalus (Australian Collared Sparrow Hawk) · A. cirrhocephalus cirrhocephalus (Australian Collared Sparrow Hawk) · (Collared Sparrowhawk) · (Australian Collared Sparrow Hawk) · (Semicollared Hawk) · A. cooperi (Big Blue Darter) · (Cooper's Hawk) · (Rufous-Necked Sparrowhawk) · (Rufous-Necked Sparrowhawk) · A. erythronemius (Rufous-Thighed Hawk) · A. erythronemius erythronemius (Rufous-Thighed Hawk) · (Red-Thighed Sparrowhawk) · (Red-Thighed Sparrow Hawk) · (Brown Goshawk) · (Brown Goshawk) · (Brown Goshawk) · (Christmas Island Nighthawk) · A. francesiae (Frances' Sparrow Hawk) · A. francesiae francesiae (Frances's Sparrowhawk) · (Anjouan Island Sparrow Hawk) · (Frances' Sparrow Hawk) · (Anjouan Island Sparrow Hawk) · (Northern Goshawk (Eurasian)) · A. gentilis apache (Apache Northern Goshawk) · (Northern Goshawk (American)) · A. gentilis gallinarum (Northern Goshawk) · (Northern Goshawk) · (Northern Goshawk) · (Sulawesi Goshawk) · (Japanese Sparrowhawk) · (Japanese Lesser Sparrow Hawk) · (Gundlach's Hawk) · A. gundlachii (Gundlach's Hawk) · (Gundlach's Hawk) · (New Caledonia Goshawk) · (Moluccan Goshawk) · (Henst's Goshawk) · (Variable Goshawk) · (Variable Goshawk) · (Variable Goshawk) · (Imitator Sparrowhawk) · (Slaty-Mantled Goshawk) · (Madagascar Sparrowhawk) · (Black-Mantled Goshawk) · (Black Sparrowhawk) · (Great Sparrow Hawk) · (Meyer's Goshawk) · (Little Sparrowhawk) · A. minullus minullus (Little Sparrowhawk) · (Small Sparrowhawk) · (Eurasian Sparrowhawk) · A. nisus dementjevi (Eurasian Sparrowhawk) · (Eurasian Sparrowhawk) · (Eurasian Sparrowhawk) · (Gray Goshawk) · A. novaehollandiae novaehollandiae (Grey Goshawk) · (Ovampo Sparrowhawk) · (Gray-Headed Goshawk) · (Gray-Bellied Hawk) · (New Britain Goshawk) · A. radiatus (Doria's Goshawk) · (Vinous-Breasted Sparrowhawk) · (Vinous-Breasted Sparrow Hawk) · (Fiji Goshawk) · (Rufous-Breasted Sparrowhawk) · (Rufous-Breasted Sparrow Hawk) · (Chinese Sparrowhawk) · (Sharp-Shinned Hawk (Caribbean)) · (Sharp-Shinned Hawk (White-Breasted)) · (Sharp-Shinned Hawk (Rufous-Thighed)) · (Sharp-Shinned Hawk) · (Sharp-Shinned Hawk) · (Sharp-Shinned Hawk) · (Sharp-Shinned Hawk) · (Sharp-Shinned Hawk (Plain-Breasted)) · (Tiny Hawk) · (Tiny Hawk) · (African Goshawk) · (African Goshawk)
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- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 9, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 14, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 7 providers.
- Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program, Understanding the Plants and Animals of Western Riverside County MSHCP University of California, Berkeley and Center for Conservation Biology, University of California, Riverside.
- Peterson, Alan P. Zoological Nomenclature Resource. Accessed June 19, 2009.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 591236
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-175305
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13888983
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 175305
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: ABNKC12023
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 178017